The word “Odontology” is comprised of two Greek words “odonto” which suggests “tooth” and “logos” mean “study”, also termed as “Forensic Dentistry”. Therefore, in a very precise manner, dentistry are often outlined as a science that deals with the study of human dentition. However in broad terms, Forensic dentistry, additionally referred to as Forensic medical specialty, is that the application of dental experience to system or for the aim of law or justice. The scope of Forensic dentistry focuses on 3 main aspects that are: the identification of unknown remains by teeth, jaw and craniofacial remains, analysis of oro-facial trauma connected with personal abuse and dental jurisprudence.
The history of the respective Forensic medical specialty dates back to forty nine B.C. once Agrippina (mother of Emperor of Rome Nero) ordered the death of her rival Lollia Paulina, who was rival with her, to be the better half of Emperor Claudius. Agrippina needed to check Paulina's head as a symptom of her death, however she wasn't certain that her challenger was dead till she detected Paulina's distinctive stained front teeth.
Another noted case of Forensic dentistry recorded in history was that of Paul Revere, who additionally to being associate Yankee silver-worker was additionally a tooth doctor. He was the one who helped establish the identity of the Revolutionary War dead World Health Organization had been buried on the piece of ground, on the idea of their teeth and dental work.
Human Dentition has three characteristics in common, that imparts a noticeably distinctive and salient mode of identification by the utilization of dental records. The 3 distinctive traits are, they being diphyodont (occur in two generations), thecodont (being embedded in a bony socket) and heterodont (bearing typical morphological structures).
General Applications of Forensic dentistry in legal prospects are: Forensic medical specialty plays an important role in establishing associate personal identity of the unidentified human remains. Within the cases of mass disasters, wherever the quantity of deceased exceeds the capability of native jurisdiction answerable for Forensic investigation; then Forensic dentistry is that the final and most powerful tool which will be used for the identification of mass disaster victim’s by analysing their ante-mortem dental records. Bite-mark analysis is that the most vital requisite of a Forensic Odontologist. Bite-mark injuries are unremarkably encountered in cases associated with sexual assaults, ill-treatment or abuse etc. Bite-marks are of great worth, as they will facilitate in establishing the identity of the wrongdoer of the crime. In cases of alleged abuse, bite-mark analysis is of utmost significance, as already mentioned. But, in addition disfigurement of oro-facial bones owing to injury will aid within the assessment of cases of abuse. Age estimation of associate unidentified body are often done close to victimization the dental records. As a matter of reality, we tend to all recognize that at a particular age solely bound teeth erupt. Thus, estimation older is of prime importance for associate investigator. In addition, associate professional Forensic odontologists will even confirm the race associated sex of an unidentified stay.
This course would very competently and with an apt practical sessions would provide the students to understand and acquaint themselves with the basics of the science of dentistry and its utility in cases pertaining to legal admissibility of the bite-marks.
Module-1 Introduction to tooth morphology- In this module, the students will be explained with all the details regarding the morphological structure and difference between each tooth, and their significance in conducting a forensic investigation.
Module-2 Morphology of permanent teeth- Permanent teeth, as the name suggests is the set of teeth that erupts after the shedding of the milk/deciduous teeth. They being permanent in nature, differ in their nature, structure as well as morphology. Therefore, this module would be explaining the students with the general morphology of the permanent teeth in an adult.
Module-3 Morphology of Deciduous teeth- Deciduous/Milk teeth is a set of teeth that erupts in an infant. As they shed off, after a certain period of time, therefore they are even termed as Temporary teeth. A thorough study of morphology of Temporary as well as Permanent teeth helps in estimating the age of an individual in cases related to mass disasters as well as in certain criminal cases, where skeletal remains are discovered after a certain period of time.
Module-4 Occlusion- Technically speaking, Occlusion is the phenomena of natural contacting between the maxillary teeth to the mandibular teeth. A detailed study of occlusion as well as different aspects related to the study of occlusal surface, plays an important role in determining the degree of wearing of teeth, due to regular chewing process.
Module-5 Development of face, jaws, lip, palate & tongue, with applied aspects- In this module, the students will be explain with the process of development of face, jaws, lip, palate & tongue, with related as well as applied aspects. This module will help the students in understanding the development of the characteristics of the oro-facial features.
Module-6 Development of teeth- A study of the chronological pattern of the development of human dentition, helps in ascertaining a number of factors associated with the development of the teeth of an individual.
Module-7 Eruption of deciduous & permanent teeth- The process of eruption and shedding of deciduous & permanent teeth occurs at specific ages only. For instance, the mandibular central incisors are the first set of teeth to erupt in an infant, whereas the last teeth to erupt are either maxillary or mandibular third molars, known to erupt between 17-21 years of age. Thus, an in-depth knowledge of the eruption of a specific teeth at a specific period of time is of great significance in Forensic Science.
Module-8 Shedding of teeth- Similar to eruption of teeth, shedding also occurs depending upon the age of an individual. Thus, collectively shedding and eruption of teeth is of great forensic value is cases pertaining to the application of Forensic Dentistry.
Module-9 Detailed microscopic study of Enamel, Dentine, Cementum, Pulp- This module will help the interested students in getting a better hold of understanding the morphological structure of the parts of a tooth as Enamel, Dentine, Cementum and Pulp macroscopically as well as microscopically.
Module-10 Microscopic study of Periodontal Ligament & Alveolar Bone- This module would acquaint the students with a detailed view and explanation of Periodontal Ligament & Alveolar Bone.
Module-11 Detailed microscopic study of Oral Mucosa- Oral Mucosa is the mucous membrane lining present within the mouth. This course would acquaint the students with all the details associated with Oral mucosa.
Module-12 Salivary Glands- This module would acquaint the students with the significance of the salivary glands in aiding the digestion process.
Module-13 TM Joint- Temporo-mandibular Joint, also termed as TMJ is a joint present in the jaw that does the task of connecting the skull to the mandible. This module would focus on to the importance of this joint in holding the skull and mandible together.
Module-14 Maxillary Sinus- Maxillary Sinus, is the pyramid-shaped maxillary sinus (or antrum of Highmore) is the largest of the para-nasal sinuses, and drains into the middle meatus of the nose. A detailed study of maxillary sinus, also aids in age-determination.
Module-15 Processing of hard & soft tissues for microscopic study- In this module, the students will be provided with the details and significance of hard and soft tissues present in the oro-facial features.
Module-16 Basic histo-chemical staining patterns of oral tissues- In this module, students would be familiarized with various histo-chemical staining patterns of oral tissues in order to study the respective behaviour.
Module-17 Saliva & Mastication- Saliva and mastication play a prominent role in digestion processes. Therefore, this module is of utmost importance in understanding the digestion processes.
Module-18 Important physical properties applicable to dental materials- Physical properties, such as flexibility, stress, strain, and proportional limit, elastic limit, elasticity etc. are of great importance in understanding the nature of the substance to be used as a dental material.
Module-19 Biological considerations in use of dental materials- Biological considerations are of huge significance in deciding and understanding the nature of the substance to be used as a dental material.
Module-20 Gypsum & gypsum products- Gypsum, due to its favourable physical and chemical properties is of great use as a dental material. Therefore, in this module, students will be elaborated with all the use and applications of gypsum as a dental material.
The analysis method varies relying upon the course you register for, likewise: if you're registered for Certification, you'll be assigned an assignment throughout the mid-session of the course, that you're deemed to complete at intervals the month. Similar method is followed in six-monthly Diploma. However in yearly PG Diploma, when the completion of the assignment throughout the mid-sessions; a Project-work is assigned throughout the last quarter, that you've got to complete in an exceedingly a months’ time.
The mode of examination are on-line for the scholars listed in any of the advance courses. When the completion of the individual course period, a username and password would be generated for all the enrolled students. The username and the password would be provided to each student through mail before the date assigned for the examination to be conducted, and consequently they might be requested by the involved authorities to see their mails, so they may use the required details in order to prepare for their exams on our on-line examination portal on the allotted date and time.
Note: Every student will be provided with a username and password a month before the conducting of the exams for the demo-exams, in order to familiarize them with each detail involved with the net examination pattern.
The complete correction and analysis takes almost half a month. Once the analysis method is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates square measure announce on to the communication address of each student, however solely after confirming their communication addresses as mentioned on the submitted application forms. Therefore, the scholars are requested to mention their correct and complete address on their forms, so as to avoid any mistake and distress.
Advance Courses are specially designed keeping in mind, the needs of the advance learners, keen in extending the panorama and limits of their meticulous knowledge. Project is one of the most essential prospects of our advance courses, as this project will help the examiner evaluate the dimensions of the knowledge that the learner has acquired during the period of the specific course.
As a Project work, just before the completion of the course, the learner would be assigned with a topic through mail, which he/she needs to complete within a month’s period and send the soft copy of the completed task through the mail itself. Certain rules are mandatory in making of the Project, and the learner is expected to follow the rules, as the violation of any of the below-listed rules may result in rejection of the submitted Project work, and in that case, the learner will have to re-submit the Project again within the stipulated time-period. The rules to be kept in mind while making the Project are:
1. The learner should mention all the details as name, roll number, address along with the ‘submitted by’ heading. In the ‘submitted to' section, the learner should mention the name of the Organization.
2. The standard font size should be 12, and the font style should be Times New Roman.
3. The standard spacing should be 1.5, along with a justified text in between the margins.
4. Learner should make sure that no plagiarism should be present in the submitted Project. He/she is free to consult various sources, but the language should be their own.
5. The work should be pleasing so that the evaluator is able to appreciate the hard work of the concerned student by the submitted Project itself.
Note: Same criteria is followed for the evaluation of Assignments as well.
Forensic Odontology is an emerging sub-disciplines of Forensic Science, with an opportunity for the aspiring candidates to have a promising career in the present world of competency. This course is especially designed keeping in minds the essentials and requirements of the students as well as the working professionals of the related field. Learners keen to learn and explore their knowledge in this field have vast options open before them to uplift and groom their career in the respective field.
With an immense theoretical and practical knowledge of the subject, an interested candidate can work on the grounds of bite-marks analysis associated to sexual assaults, child abuse etc., or can even opt to work for the identification of the number of deceased in mass casualty cases with the help of ante-mortem dental records, by comparing them with the post-mortem records.
The prime requisite of the candidate to lift one’s career in this subject is the possession of immense skill with vast knowledge of the subject on a theoretical as well as practical basis
1. What is the purpose of designing Advance courses?
The primary focus of the Advance courses is to target the working professionals. Therefore, the main objective of designing these courses are to provide the working candidates an opportunity to augment their skills and knowledge of the subject, with the advancing technology and science, at their own convenience without any time-limit bounds. These courses provide the candidates a chance to improve and add more to their skills, without even hindering and leaving their comfort zones.
2. Which mode of learning is best-suited for Advance courses?
We provide Advance courses in distance learning as well as online mode. Thus, it totally depends on the candidate to choose any mode according to their convenience and comfort. The only difference is that- in online mode, all the study materials, notes etc. will be provided online, thus the candidate is required to have an access to internet; whereas in distance learning, we send the related books, notes and study materials at the postal address of the respective candidate, which he/she can go through anywhere and anytime on the basis of his/her ease.
3. How do I enrol for an Advance course?
In order to enrol for any of the Advance courses, the candidate should send through post or mail the scanned copy of the duly filled and signed application form along with two passport sized photographs and the photocopied documents of the certificates and mark-sheets. In order to download the application form, please check the following link: http://sifs.in/application-form.pdf and to apply online, click on to: http://sifs.in/apply-online.php.
After the submission of the form, the student is required to submit the fee. In order to check and know more about the payment methods, please click on to: http://sifsindia.com/payment/
4. What is Forensic Odontology?
Forensic Odontology, also termed as Forensic Dentistry is described as the application of dental science and techniques, in the cases pertaining to the involvement of legal bodies. This science is commonly applied in cases of physical abuses, sexual assaults and mass disasters.
5. What is the course content of FSP AC 101?
In the course FSP AC 101, the learners will be acquainted with basics, requirements and the techniques employed in the science to prove the suspect guilty before the court of law, in order to ensure an actual verdict in favour of the victim. This course would design the students in a way, that they will be able to present themselves as an Expert Witness before the court, equipped with ample skills and knowledge of the subject.
For more details, click on to http://www.sifs.in/prospectus/FSP-AC-101-forensic-dontology.pdf
6. What is the course duration of level-1 and level-2 courses?
All advance courses are divided into two certifications i.e. level-1 course for six months and level-2 for one year.
7. What qualification is required to be eligible for an Advance course?
If you are looking for level-1 courses, you must have completed your 10+2 or appearing in any discipline from Recognized Board/ School and for level-2 course graduation will be required. This course is aptly fit for the working professionals, as it may help in enhancing their subject related knowledge.
8. Where can I register for an Advance course?
We provide online application form for all online or distance students. To download application, form click on- http://www.sifs.in/application-form.pdf
9. When will I receive my study materials, books etc.?
After the completion of your admission process and payment of fee, the students enrolled for online courses will receive a username and password to access e-library within 7-10 working days through mail on their mail id which is mentioned on the application form; whereas distance education students will receive hardcopy of related course materials on the mentioned address by courier or post within 15 working days.
10. What about exams and course credits?
In the last month of your course, we will conduct your online exam. All details regarding your exam will be sent to you on the mail id provided by you and the course credits differs according to course code and divided into project work and examination.
For more info please click on- www.sifs.in
11. How do I get my certificate/mark-sheet, when I have completed my exams?
You will receive your mark-sheet and certificate within a month on your mentioned address by courier or post.
12. What is the scope and career of Forensic Odontology?
Forensic Odontology offers a wide range of opportunity to the students aspiring to make their careers as Forensic Scientists and Investigators. With a sense of keen observation and the ability of seeing the unseen are a few traits that would promise the aspiring students to make a colourful career in the wonderful arena of Forensic. You can nurture and enhance your career by this course, as it may provide you with numerous opportunities from laboratories and classrooms to court-rooms.
13. Am I required to pay any extra fee for examination, study materials etc.?
No. Your course fee includes Study materials, Books, Notes, I-Card, Examination Fee. You are not required to pay any extra amount, but in some cases- additional taxes / fees may apply. If you are living out of India and interested in printed notes and books, then you have to pay shipping/postal charges extra.
14. How can I pay my course fee by credit card in USD?
Indian Students may use Universal Currency Converter from http://www.xe.com/ucc/ to pay fee in other currencies, or International students visit this link- http://www.sifs.in/onlinefee.php to check out the fee structure. You can pay your course fee from here- http://www.sifs.org.in/payment (Students enrolled for courses having course duration more than 6 months can pay their Course Fee in maximum two instalments, but Rs. 2000 will be charged extra.)
15. I am interested in a career in this field. Where do I start?
In order to initiate a career into this field, you should have a zeal and urge to unveil the veiled. A certificate, diploma and PG diploma course would help you groom your knowledge theoretically as well as practically, thereby ensuring a safe and secure career.
16. Where will I work?
You may avail opportunities as a Forensic Examiner in Central as well as various State Government Labs. You can also practice as a Dental Expert and present yourself in any Indian Court of Law as an Expert Witness under Section 45 of Indian Evidence Act.
17. Can a working professional opt for the course FSP AC 101?
Yes, the course FSP AC 101 is very aptly designed for working professionals, as they may get an access to the subject matter anywhere, anytime according to their own ease and comfort.
18. How can this course be beneficial for a working professional?
Yes, this course will provide an add-on advantage to a working professional. Therefore, this course can prove to be very worthy for working personnel as well.
19. Will I get placed after completing this course?
After the completion of this course, an aspirant may avail opportunities in Research Institutes and various Dentistry-related departments all around the Nation.
20. Which other courses can I opt for, other than Forensic Odontology?
Other than Forensic Odontology, we also provide a list of other Forensic-related courses. For detailed info, please check the below-mentioned details-
For distance/online courses: http://sifs.in/online-forensic-science-courses.php
For classroom courses: http://www.sifs.in/classroom-forensic-courses.php
27 Year Old Lady Case
The case relates to the murder of a 27 year old lady in an isolated rural area while she was going for work on 09.09.2002.The post-mortem report revealed deep injuries to head and neck due to stabbing. The investigation could not make any break through as there were no eyewitnesses or scientific evidence. The only object obtained from the scene of crime was a partial denture.
The case was subsequently handed over to the Crime Branch in 2005.The line of investigation was then centred on the partial denture recovered from the scene of crime. The suspect who had been zeroed on was a 59 year old neighbour who used to accompany her quite often. The Crime branch approached the Government Dental College, Calicut on information of possible identification of the partial denture wearer using Forensic odontology methods.
The Department of Prosthodontics made impressions and study models of the suspect’s jaws using irreversible hydrocolloid material and type III Dental stone. These included full arch and anterior segmental models.
Detailed intra oral clinical examination of the suspect revealed missing upper right central incisor. The site of missing upper right central incisor had a deep notch extending from the buccal to the palatal surface. Spacing was seen in the upper anterior regions between right lateral incisor and canine.
The partial denture which was produced before us was examined, the findings included:
1. It was a single tooth partial denture for the replacement of upper right central incisor.
2. The intaglio surface of the denture in the region of the replaced tooth had a projection extending from the buccal to palatal surface.
The intra oral findings were compared with that of the partial denture on the models prepared. It was observed that:
1. The missing tooth of the suspect’s mouth is maxillary right central incisor and the submitted partial denture is also that of a replaced missing right central incisor.
2. The morphology of the artificial tooth of the partial denture coincides with the natural maxillary left central incisor of the suspect’s mouth.
3. There is a depression in the region of the edentulous space that extends across the ridge which corresponds to the projection as seen in the partial denture.
4. The cervical margin of the teeth of the suspect in the region of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors corresponds with the finish line of the partial denture in the same regions.
5. The partial denture margin closely adapts with the cervical margin of the corresponding natural teeth.
6. The incisive papilla in the suspect’s mouth corresponds to the depression in the artificial partial denture.
Based on the intraoral findings of the suspect and the partial denture we were of the opinion that the partial denture had been used by the suspect. The same was reported to the Crime Branch who took the suspect into custody. The suspect later confessed of the crime and has been convicted. This has been the first ever conviction of a suspect using Forensic odontology in the state of Kerala.
The introduction of uniform system of naming and coding the dentures by dental practitioners will be of immense help in identification. The dental evidence is most valuable and reliable method like fingerprints. The scope of Forensic odontology is very broad and is a challenging field and the dentist should make unique contributions in the administration of justice.
All these courses are Online / Distance mode. Each student can access their course module by login our online study portal i.e.
Apart from above course details, there are some additional details of this course. More details can be get by clicking here such as-
1. Eligibility for the Admission
2. Admission Procedure
3. Examination Pattern
4. Grading System in Examination
5. Course Fee and Concession
6. Types of Certificates
7. Study Materials
For further Course details Click Here-->>
2443, Hudson Lane, Kingsway Camp, Delhi-09
Telephone: +91 11 47074263