Forensic Biology & Serology, as the name clarifies is the study related to the examination of bodily/biological fluids (blood, semen, saliva, urine, vaginal discharge etc.) found at a crime scene, in order to be presented before the court of law. Other than the examination of bodily fluids, this subject also includes the determination of species of origin and the grouping of bloodstains. One of the basic principles of Forensic Science is to maintain the integrity of the encountered evidences at the crime scene by maintaining an apt and systematic collection and preservation process, ensuring the point that during the transportation no evidence gets contaminated. Therefore, due to this fact the prime duty of the investigating officer is to emphasis on an appropriate manner of collection and preservation of the fragile evidences.
Within this course structure, students will be taught theoretically as well as practically regarding the mechanism that works behind the examination of bodily fluids as blood, saliva etc. The students will be taught about the preliminary (Benzidine and Phenolphthalein tests) and confirmatory tests (Teichmann, Takayama and Wagenaar tests) of blood and their significances independently.
Under this course structure, students will be provided with a detailed information regarding what all evidences can be encountered commonly at a crime scene, what activities might have taken place at the crime scene before the crime was committed, for instance: the presence of semen may direct that a possible physical intimacy must have occurred, may be consensually or vehemently. Likewise, the presence of blood may denote certain signs of struggle and physical violent at the crime scene. Therefore, the investigator should have the ability to link the evidences with the incidents that might have taken place. The forensic value of each evidence is of great help in solving the mysteries, therefore students will be practically exposed to the mock crime scenes where they will be able to judge their capabilities and nurture their skills to prepare themselves as future Forensic Investigators.
Blood behaves definite scientific principles. BPA, blood-stain pattern analysis at the scene of crime in direction to reconstruct the actions that produced the blood-sheds. Forensic expert examine the shape, size, location and distribution of the blood patterns to procedure expert opinions about what did happened. Module would be introduce you to the nature of blood, its composition, red cells, hemoglobin and functions of blood.
Module-2 Collection of blood
Techniques of blood collection in this module has been providing to confirm the blood specimen is correctly collected and preserved. The integrity of the consequence is reliant on these guidelines being followed to. Techniques of blood collection would be introduce you to the nature of liquid blood, wet stains, dry stains, washed blood and collection and preservation of blood samples etc.
Module-3 Identification of bloodstains
Various techniques of blood identification, as the name signifies will be dealing with various types of techniques to identify the nature of blood stains, microscopic methods, Catalytic Tests- preparation of reagents, testing procedures and interpretation of results, Crystal tests- Hematin (Teichmann) Test, Acetone- Chlor Hemin (Wagenaar) test, Hemochromogen (Takayama) test and interpretation of results, Spectrophotometric method, Electrophoresis methods- Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis and Immuno-electrophoresis, Chromatographic Methods and Immunological (Anti-hemoglobin) Tests.
Module-4 Determination of species of origin
This module focusses on importance of examination of bodily fluids from a forensic perspective. The importance of tests for species of origin, single diffusion in one dimension, single diffusion in two dimensions, immune-electrophoresis, rocket immuno electrophoresis (Laurel technique), two-dimensional electrophoresis, crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed ant globulin method, sensitized latex particle method, testing procedures- choice of antisera, preparation of stain extract, ring test, immuno-diffusion test and crossed over electrophoresis, other factors in the precipitin tests- precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, the diffusion coefficient, optimal environment and the specificity of the antiserum.
Module-5 Grouping of bloodstains
Under this module, students would be taught about the major blood groups, the ABO system, RH system and the MN system.
Module-6 Techniques for the determination of blood group
Blood group detection techniques would be familiarized you to the lattes crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, absorption elution method- test-tube method, thread method (Howard and martin technique) and ammonia extraction Method, determination of A and AB sub-groups, grouping of MN system and grouping of the RH System.
Module-7 General observations on bloodstain grouping
Discussion on blood-grouping techniques, under this module students will be accustomed to the comparison of major techniques and new approaches in bloodstain grouping.
Branch of forensic biology is the application of biological fluid examination techniques to legitimate examinations. The investigation of body fluids, mainly the likes of blood, saliva, semen, all of which are usually found at scenes of crime. Various aspects of examination of seminal fluid would be familiarize you to nature of semen, location and collection, scene of occurrence, techniques, chemical tests and biological tests.
Module-9 Other bodily fluids
Commonly found bodily fluids at a crime scene would be describe you to the nature of saliva, urine, faeces, sweat, nasal secretions, tears, human milk and its collection techniques.
The evaluation process varies depending upon the course you enroll for, likewise: if you are enrolled for Certification, you will be allotted an assignment during the mid-session of the course, which you are deemed to complete within the month. Similar process is followed in Diploma. But in PG Diploma, after the completion of the assignment during the mid-sessions; a Project-work is assigned during the last quarter, which you have to complete in a month’s time.
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled either in online courses or in distance course. After the completion of the respective course duration, a username and password would be generated for all the enlisted students. The username and the password would be mailed to every student prior to the date allotted for the examination to be held, and accordingly they would be requested by the concerned authorities to check their mails, so that they could use the specified details in order to give their exams on our online examination portal on the allocated date and time.
Note: Every student will be given a username and password a month before the conducting of the exams for the demo-exams, so that they get to know every detail concerned with the online examination pattern.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the postal address of every student, but only after verifying their postal addresses as mentioned on the submitted application forms. Therefore, the students are always requested to mention their correct and complete address on their application form, in order to avoid further confusion and disappointment.
Training is a decisive part to get a practical and professional knowledge. SIFS India provides an affluence training of Forensic Biology & Serology. Training schedule is arranged to provide a sympathetic knowledge of Forensic Biology & Serology practices, principles, case studies and so on.
This collaborative training session is designed for online and distance students. The practical training module is divided into seven modules such as-
Module-1: Collection of blood- The training session is related to Crime Scene Investigation, as how to conduct a proper collection and packaging of blood, which is one of the most common evidences generally encountered at every scene of crime. The students would be guided on a practical activity, as how to collect and package blood depending upon its nature and condition (dry stains, blood pool, blood smeared cloth etc.).
Module-2: Identification of bloodstains- Many dried bloodstains seem to be very similar to blood, when seen visually. But on proper chemical analysis, one can differentiate bloodstains to certain vegetable stains. Therefore, in the respective module, students will be taught as the technique of identifying blood by the application of various preliminary and confirmatory tests. Students will also be familiarized with the mechanism responsible behind this action.
Module-3: Determination of species of origin- Once, if a bloodstain is found at a crime scene and its send to the laboratory. Then, the prime duty of the forensic biologist is to ascertain the species to which the blood belongs, as there can be a possibility of a specific bloodstain belonging to an animal. Therefore, in this module the students will be made aware of how to determine the species of origin.
Module-4: Blood Group Detection Techniques- In the practical sessions offered this module, students will be made aware of various techniques involved in detecting the blood group of a questioned blood sample.
Module-5: Examination of Seminal Fluid and other bodily fluids- In Forensic Biology & Serology, other than blood various other bodily fluids, such as, semen, saliva, urine, vomit, faeces etc. are encountered on a scene of crime. Therefore, under this module, students will be guided as to how to detect the presence of other bodily fluids and confirm their presence through practical analysis of the evidences.
DURATION OF TRAINING
The duration scheduled for the training is one month during the summer vacations.
ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING
>> The training session specially focusses to bring together online and distance students to enhance their knowledge.
>> Training will provide you the practical knowledge and opportunities to investigate the legal cases.
>> The training session of the course FSP 403 Forensic Biology and Serology course familiarize you to brief knowledge of course in classroom assembly.
>> Online and distance students attend to plenary training session and case studies, and learn more about Forensic Science and Criminal Investigation.
FEE FOR TRAINING
The training would be payable for online and distance learning students. But they already being enrolled as students, therefore they can avail an add-on advantage of earning 15% scholarship on their respective course fee.
After the successful completion of one month training, a valedictory function is organized on the last day where students are distributed the certificate and a farewell treat is arranged for the students from the Organization.
Outline towards Forensic Biology & Serology career paths
Now a days Forensic Science stands in very broad manner with multiple sub-fields. Forensic Biology & Serology is one of the chief sub-disciplines of Forensic Science, which offers a myriad career opportunities to the keen aspirants. After a thorough theoretical and practical sessions provided under this course, the student would be able to gain the capability to analyze various biological fluids commonly found at the scene of crime. After completing this course, a student has innumerable options for grooming one’s career, some of them are listed below:
>> Student can be appointed as a Forensic Biologist & Serologist in the Central Forensic Science Laboratories.
>> Student can also be appointed as Forensic Biologist & Serologist in the State Forensic Labs.
>> Student can be appointed as a faculty/ trainer of Forensic Biology & Serology in the various institutes offering Forensic Science courses as undergraduate and master’s programme.
Educational Qualification to set a career in Forensic Biology & Serology
First level course of the Forensic Biology & Serology is a Certification Programme. In order to opt for this course one must be of Science background. Forensic Biology & Serology courses are also available for the Science background graduate level students who are interested to start their career from master level programme in the respective investigating science. For those students, who are opting for their Doctorate degree can choose any of the Biology-Serology related topic for their further research and study.
Law students and professionals both can do Certification, Diploma Course and P.G. Diploma course offered in Forensic Science to elevate their legal knowledge.
Sectors in Forensic Biology & Serology
Job prospects for Forensic Biology & Serology are in Government Sectors, as Medical Practitioner, and Forensic labs; Government and Private Laboratories.
Alternate job besides working in a Laboratory is teaching with abundant opportunity to upheld one’s career by imparting education.
1. What is Forensic Biology & Serology?
In the course Forensic Biology & Serology, the students will be acquainted with importance of medical science and techniques applied in the detection and examination of various bodily fluids and discharges commonly encountered at a crime scene.
2. What is the course content of FSP 403?
The course Forensic Biology & Serology (FSP 403) includes all the details regarding the significance of observation and analysis of biological fluids generally found at the crime scene to aid in criminal investigations. Course will introduce you to interactive training session and practicals on the scientific and practical methods involved in a proper analysis of biological fluids.
For more details click on- http://www.sifs.in/prospectus/FSP-403-forensic-biology-toxicology.pdf
3. What is the course duration of Certificate, Diploma and PG Diploma courses?
All online and distance courses are divided into three certifications i.e. Certificate course for three months, Diploma course for six months and PG Diploma for one year.
4. What qualification is required to be eligible for the above-mentioned courses?
If you are looking for Certificate and Diploma courses, you must have completed your 10+2 or appearing in any discipline from Recognized Board/ School and for PG Diploma course graduation will be required. In the admission process, self-attested mark-sheets and certificates of the previous school/college and transfer certificate along with 2 passport size photographs will be required from the student.
5. Where can I register for distance or online education courses?
We provide online application form for all online or distance students. To download application, form click on- http://www.sifs.in/application-form.pdf
6. When will I receive my study materials, books etc.?
After the completion of your admission process and payment of fee, the students enrolled for online courses will receive a username and password to access e-library within 7-10 working days through mail on their mail id which is mentioned on the application form; whereas distance education students will receive hardcopy of related course materials on the mentioned address by courier or post within 15 working days.
7. What about exams and course credits?
In the last month of your course, we will conduct your online exam. All details regarding your exam will sent to you on the mail id provided by you and the course credits differs according to course code and divided into assignment, project and exam.
For more detail please click on- www.sifs.in/ims
8. How do I get my certificate/mark-sheet, when I have completed my exams?
You will receive your mark-sheet and certificate within a month on your mentioned address by courier or post.
9. What is the difference between online and distance education? Which is the best mode of education?
Both modes of education are good. The only difference between online and distance education is distance education students will get hardcopy material related to their course code, and so the distance learning students will pay Rs. 1000 more as compared to online education students. An extra amount is charged for distance learning students, as the postal charges are included in the course fee.
10. Where do I find out what courses are being offered distance or online?
We provide all information on the website- www.sifs.in
11. Although my degree is in an unrelated field of study, I have taken quite a few science courses. Am I eligible to apply?
Yes. You are eligible for this Forensic Biology & Serology (FSP 403), if you have completed or if you are pursuing your 10+2 or graduation in any discipline from a Recognized Board/ School/ College.
12. What is the scope and career of forensic education and related courses?
Forensic Science offers a wide range of opportunity to the students aspiring to make their careers as Forensic Scientists and Investigators. With a sense of keen observation and the ability of seeing the unseen are a few traits that would promise the aspiring students to make a colorful career in the wonderful arena of Forensic.
13. Should I pay any extra fee for examination, study materials etc.?
No. Your course fee includes Study materials, Books, Notes, I-Card, Examination Fee. You are not required to pay any extra amount, but in some cases- additional taxes / fees may apply. If you are living out of India and interested in printed notes and books, then you have to pay shipping/postal charges extra. Summer training and practical sessions will be payable for online and distance students with 15% scholarship.
14. What will I get after joining distance course?
You will get User-id and password to access e-library within 7-10 working days. Study materials, notes and books related to your course and id-card will be sent on the address mentioned by you, either by courier or post within 15 working days.
15. How can I pay my course fee by credit card in USD?
Indian Students may use Universal Currency Converter from http://www.xe.com/ucc/ to pay fee in other currencies, or International students visit this link- http://www.sifs.in/onlinefee.php to check out the fee structure. You can pay your course fee from here- http://www.sifs.org.in/payment (Students enrolled for courses having course duration more than 6 months can pay their Course Fee in maximum two instalments, but Rs. 2000 will be charged extra.)
16. Why is training important?
Training is a vital part of online and distance students. It is intended to provide students with the opportunity to place theories into practicals. It is also very helpful to develop their skills that support professional life by preparing and encouraging them to apply their abilities and knowledge acquired through study in a work later on. So, even before the students completed their course they are trained to be job-ready, therefore increasing the student’s employment prospects.
17. What is the best route to prepare for a career as a forensic scientist?
SIFS INDIA provides professional course Forensic Biology & Serology (FSP 403) to acquire knowledge from the basics. The course interest attribute to up showing television shows focused on law enforcement and forensics. Subject offers the opportunity to grow your career in many sub disciples.
18. I am interested in a career in this field. Where do I start?
In order to initiate a career into this field, you should have a zeal and urge to unveil the veiled. A certificate, diploma and PG diploma course would help you groom your knowledge theoretically as well as practically, thereby ensuring a safe and secure career.
19. Where will I work?
You may avail opportunities as a Forensic Biologist & Serologist in the central as well as state forensic laboratories. You can also work as a trainer in various colleges and institutes offering this course in their academic curriculum.
20. What are the other specialized forensic science careers can be found outside the crime laboratory?
Other than working in the Crime Laboratory, you can also be appointed as a Crime Scene Investigator in Police Stations or you can also be appointed as an Investigator for the Mobile Forensic Laboratory.
OJ Simpson Case
On 12 June 1994, Nicole Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman were found murdered, stabbed brutally. The pair had been found murdered at Nicole’s home in Beverly Hills by her next door neighbour, who immediately contacted the police. Nicole’s two sons were fast asleep inside the house. Upon inspection of the scene, a bloodied glove was found by the door, and blood droplets leading to a blood-covered car parked outside, where a matching glove was found. The car belonged to Nicole’s ex-husband, American football player Orenthal James (OJ) Simpson.
Police tracked down OJ, who had taken a night flight to Chicago, and informed him of the death of his ex-wife. OJ, sounding distraught yet not remotely curious about what had happened, caught the next plane home. Whilst being interviewed by the police, investigators noticed the suspect’s recently-bandaged hand, which he claimed was an old wound recently opened. The injured hand was photographed, and blood samples and fingerprints were taken.
The entire trail of OJ Simpson was highly publicized due to his celebrity status, especially as the evidence mounted up against him. Simpson had no alibi for the time of the murder, blood was found on his car and gloves, and his DNA showed his blood on a sock in Nicole’s room. However due to various mistakes made during the investigation, such as unnoticed vital clues and unsterile swabs used, led to OJ being found innocent.
All these courses are Online / Distance mode. Each student can access their course module by login our online study portal i.e.
Apart from above course details, there are some additional details of this course. More details can be get by clicking here such as-
1. Eligibility for the Admission
2. Admission Procedure
3. Examination Pattern
4. Grading System in Examination
5. Course Fee and Concession
6. Types of Certificates
7. Study Materials
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