Course Introduction

FSP 403 : Forensic Biology & Serology

  • Course Outline
  • Curriculum
  • FAQ
  • Case Studies
  • Reviews

Forensic Biology & Serology, as the name clarifies is the study related to the examination of bodily/biological fluids (blood, semen, saliva, urine, vaginal discharge etc.) found at a crime scene, in order to be presented before the court of law. Other than the examination of bodily fluids, this subject also includes the determination of species of origin and the grouping of bloodstains. One of the basic principles of Forensic Science is to maintain the integrity of the encountered evidences at the crime scene by maintaining an apt and systematic collection and preservation process, ensuring the point that during the transportation no evidence gets contaminated. Therefore, due to this fact the prime duty of the investigating officer is to emphasis on an appropriate manner of collection and preservation of the fragile evidences.


Within this course structure, students will be taught theoretically as well as practically regarding the mechanism that works behind the examination of bodily fluids as blood, saliva etc. The students will be taught about the preliminary (Benzidine and Phenolphthalein tests) and confirmatory tests (Teichmann, Takayama and Wagenaar tests) of blood and their significances independently.


Under this course structure, students will be provided with a detailed information regarding what all evidences can be encountered commonly at a crime scene, what activities might have taken place at the crime scene before the crime was committed, for instance: the presence of semen may direct that a possible physical intimacy must have occurred, may be consensually or vehemently. Likewise, the presence of blood may denote certain signs of struggle and physical violent at the crime scene. Therefore, the investigator should have the ability to link the evidences with the incidents that might have taken place. The forensic value of each evidence is of great help in solving the mysteries, therefore students will be practically exposed to the mock crime scenes where they will be able to judge their capabilities and nurture their skills to prepare themselves as future Forensic Investigators.

  • Level I : Forensic Biology & Serology

    MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY

    Forensic Serology plays a significant role in the criminal judiciary world. The module gives a detail description about the nature, characteristics and constituents of blood – Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells. Blood is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at crime scene. Here in this module function, significance and collection, preservation and packaging of blood has been discussed in detail.

    MODULE 2 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

    Blood pattern is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at the crime scene. The physical property of blood give rise to the blood spatter pattern which occurs with the involvement of numerous mechanism. Here in this module scholars will come across the types of bloodstains and classification of bloodstain pattern.

    MODULE 3 – IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS

    Various techniques has been used for examination and identification of blood and bloodstain. Such as Physical Examination, Presumptive Tests, Confirmatory or Microcrystal Test, Chromatographic Methods, Spectrophotometric Methods, Electrophoresis.

    MODULE 4 – DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN

    This module focusses on importance of examination of bodily fluids from a forensic perspective. The importance of tests for species of origin, single diffusion in one dimension, single diffusion in two dimensions, immuno-electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis (Laurel technique), two-dimensional electrophoresis, crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed ant globulin method, sensitized latex particle method, testing procedures- choice of antisera, preparation of stain extract, ring test, immuno-diffusion test and crossed over electrophoresis, other factors in the precipitin tests- precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, the diffusion coefficient, optimal environment and the specificity of the antiserum.

    MODULE 5 – TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP

    Blood group detection techniques would be familiarized you to the lattes crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, absorption elution method- test-tube method, thread method (Howard and martin technique) and ammonia extraction Method, determination of A and AB sub-groups, grouping of MN system and grouping of the RH System.

  • Level II : Forensic Biology & Serology

    MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY

    Forensic Serology plays a significant role in the criminal judiciary world. The module gives a detail description about the nature, characteristics and constituents of blood – Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells. Blood is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at crime scene. Here in this module function, significance and collection, preservation and packaging of blood has been discussed in detail.

    MODULE 2 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

    Blood pattern is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at the crime scene. The physical property of blood give rise to the blood spatter pattern which occurs with the involvement of numerous mechanism. Here in this module scholars will come across the types of bloodstains and classification of bloodstain pattern.

    MODULE 3 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS

    In this online learning course scholars will learn how to evaluate and interpret the blood stain pattern encountered at crime scene. Blood-stain pattern analysis helps the investigator to reconstruct the actions that produced the blood-sheds. Forensic expert examine the shape, size, location and distribution of the blood patterns to procedure expert opinions about what did happened. Scholars will also learn how to photograph the bloodstain pattern encountered at the crime scene and its forensic significance. Blood pattern analysis is equally reliable and can be applied by the use of various concept of physics and mathematical calculation.

    MODULE 4 – IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS

    Various techniques has been used for examination and identification of blood and bloodstain. Such as Physical Examination, Presumptive Tests, Confirmatory or Microcrystal Test, Chromatographic Methods, Spectrophotometric Methods, Electrophoresis.

    MODULE 5 – DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN

    This module focusses on importance of examination of bodily fluids from a forensic perspective. The importance of tests for species of origin, single diffusion in one dimension, single diffusion in two dimensions, immuno-electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis (Laurel technique), two-dimensional electrophoresis, crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed ant globulin method, sensitized latex particle method, testing procedures- choice of antisera, preparation of stain extract, ring test, immuno-diffusion test and crossed over electrophoresis, other factors in the precipitin tests- precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, the diffusion coefficient, optimal environment and the specificity of the antiserum.

    MODULE 6 – TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP

    Blood group detection techniques would be familiarized you to the lattes crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, absorption elution method- test-tube method, thread method (Howard and martin technique) and ammonia extraction Method, determination of A and AB sub-groups, grouping of MN system and grouping of the RH System.

    MODULE 7 – OTHER BODY FLUIDS AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    Here in this module scholars would learn about the commonly found bodily fluids at a crime scene. each body fluids are further described in detail such as the nature, collection techniques and examination of saliva, urine, faeces, sweat, nasal secretions, tears, human milk and its collection techniques.

  • Level III : Forensic Biology & Serology

    MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY

    Forensic Serology plays a significant role in the criminal judiciary world. The module gives a detail description about the nature, characteristics and constituents of blood – Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells. Blood is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at crime scene. Here in this module function, significance and collection, preservation and packaging of blood has been discussed in detail.

    MODULE 2 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

    Blood pattern is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at the crime scene. The physical property of blood give rise to the blood spatter pattern which occurs with the involvement of numerous mechanism. Here in this module scholars will come across the types of bloodstains and classification of bloodstain pattern.

    MODULE 3 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS

    In this online learning course scholars will learn how to evaluate and interpret the blood stain pattern encountered at crime scene. Blood-stain pattern analysis helps the investigator to reconstruct the actions that produced the blood-sheds. Forensic expert examine the shape, size, location and distribution of the blood patterns to procedure expert opinions about what did happened. Scholars will also learn how to photograph the bloodstain pattern encountered at the crime scene and its forensic significance. Blood pattern analysis is equally reliable and can be applied by the use of various concept of physics and mathematical calculation.

    MODULE 4 – IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS

    Various techniques has been used for examination and identification of blood and bloodstain. Such as Physical Examination, Presumptive Tests, Confirmatory or Microcrystal Test, Chromatographic Methods, Spectrophotometric Methods, Electrophoresis.

    MODULE 5 – DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN

    This module focusses on importance of examination of bodily fluids from a forensic perspective. The importance of tests for species of origin, single diffusion in one dimension, single diffusion in two dimensions, immuno-electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis (Laurel technique), two-dimensional electrophoresis, crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed ant globulin method, sensitized latex particle method, testing procedures- choice of antisera, preparation of stain extract, ring test, immuno-diffusion test and crossed over electrophoresis, other factors in the precipitin tests- precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, the diffusion coefficient, optimal environment and the specificity of the antiserum.

    MODULE 6 – SEROGENETIC MARKER

    Under this module, students would be taught about the major blood groups, the ABO system, RH system and the MN system followed by the new approaches used in blood stain grouping. Different type of polymorphic enzyme typing such as Phosphoglucomutase (PGM), Glyoxalase (GLO-I), Esterase D (ESD), Adenylate Kinase (AK), Adenosine Deaminase (ADA), Erythrocytes Acid Phosphatase (ESD), Phosphogluconate Dehydogenase (PGD), has been discussed in details.

    MODULE 7 – TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP

    Blood group detection techniques would be familiarized you to the lattes crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, absorption elution method- test-tube method, thread method (Howard and martin technique) and ammonia extraction Method, determination of A and AB sub-groups, grouping of MN system and grouping of the RH System.

    MODULE 8 – SEMEN

    Branch of Forensic Biology is the application of biological fluid examination techniques to legitimate examinations. The investigation of body fluids, mainly the likes of blood, saliva, semen, all of which are usually found at scenes of crime. Various aspects of examination of seminal fluid would be familiarize you to nature of semen, location and collection, scene of occurrence, techniques, chemical tests and biological tests.

    MODULE 9 – OTHER BODY FLUIDS AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    Here in this module scholars would learn about the commonly found bodily fluids at a crime scene. each body fluids are further described in detail such as the nature, collection techniques and examination of saliva, urine, faeces, sweat, nasal secretions, tears, human milk and its collection techniques.

  • What is Forensic Biology & Serology?

    In Forensic Biology & Serology, the students will be acquainted with importance of medical science and techniques applied in the detection and examination of various bodily fluids and discharges commonly encountered at a crime scene.

  • How can I become an Expert of Forensic Biology & Serology?

    The area of forensic biology & serology comprise of laboratory techniques that are useful for an Expert to understand and apply the same for positive results. The course throws spotlight on the basic yet essential aspects of the techniques that should be followed from an Expert’s view.  

  • What are the responsibilities as an Expert of Forensic Biology & Serology?

    The Expert is supposed to form an opinion regarding the evidence in offense occurred. This can be any sexual offence or criminal offence that may include any biological or serological evidence. The expert has to sometimes state the collection and preservation for the same.

  • What are the scope and the opportunistic aspects of the course?

    The learner with skills and intuitive knowledge can work with various State as well as Centrally located Forensic Science Laboratories, which work extensively for bringing justice to the innocent.  Any learner with required eligibility can also work in private laboratories and in educational institutions as a Faculty. 

  • Where can I contact in case of any queries?

    You can write to us at education@sifs.in or call us at +91-1147074263 or WhatsApp us +91-7303913002 or +91-7303913003.


OJ Simpson Case

On 12 June 1994, Nicole Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman were found murdered, stabbed brutally. The pair had been found murdered at Nicole’s home in Beverly Hills by her next door neighbour, who immediately contacted the police. Nicole’s two sons were fast asleep inside the house. Upon inspection of the scene, a bloodied glove was found by the door, and blood droplets leading to a blood-covered car parked outside, where a matching glove was found. The car belonged to Nicole’s ex-husband, American football player Orenthal James (OJ) Simpson.

Police tracked down OJ, who had taken a night flight to Chicago, and informed him of the death of his ex-wife. OJ, sounding distraught yet not remotely curious about what had happened, caught the next plane home. Whilst being interviewed by the police, investigators noticed the suspect’s recently-bandaged hand, which he claimed was an old wound recently opened. The injured hand was photographed, and blood samples and fingerprints were taken.

The entire trail of OJ Simpson was highly publicized due to his celebrity status, especially as the evidence mounted up against him. Simpson had no alibi for the time of the murder, blood was found on his car and gloves, and his DNA showed his blood on a sock in Nicole’s room. However due to various mistakes made during the investigation, such as unnoticed vital clues and unsterile swabs used, led to OJ being found innocent.

Sannidhi D D

5

This was a great experience to know more things about forensic biology and serology which is helpful for the forensic science student and even for much more broad use .Thank you so much sir for brushing up us to shine later in future. And I am going to surely use the knowledge in my field as much as possible and effective .

Rithiksha Ramesh

4

The course provided was amazing I could understand the things and learnt many things. Looking forward for more. 

Aachal Ashok Kiranpure

4

It was a great experience to learn the things. As I am in first year I learned many things and got very good knowledge about it. It was awesome course and I would like to thank SIFS for such a wonderful course. It's been a wonderful experience.

Sumit Surendra Gadling

4

The course was really very good and interactive. I learned a lot and every bit of content was very interesting and informative, 

Vaishali Wahi

4

It's very nice and good course. Thankyou SIFS for such informative initiative. 

 

Instructors

Vaishnavi Thakre

Vaishnavi Thakre

Forensic Expert

Preview this course

Select Course Level
Call for Assistance
7303913002

Be a Part of Revolutionized Learning

Our courses acknowledge comprehensive learning through synergistic sessions and also while staying rooted.