Course Introduction

FSP 403: Forensic Biology and Serology

  • Course Outline
  • Curriculum
  • FAQ
  • Case Studies
  • Reviews

February Batch 2024

Last Date to Register : 25th February 2024

The Forensic Biology & Serology Online Course by SIFS India is carefully crafted to help you explore the domain of life sciences where biology intersects with forensic investigation.

You will learn to handle biological evidence, perform DNA analysis, do serological testing, and acquire skills to become a proficient forensic biologist.

You will receive training from expert professionals in the form of pre-recorded sessions to master skills to decipher the hidden stories within biological samples.

This course comprises three levels: Level 1 (certificate), Level 2 (diploma), and Level 3 (Post Graduate Diploma), and the entire curriculum is divided among these levels.

A few of the topics you will learn about are:forensic serology history, characteristics of blood, types of bloodstain patterns, collection, preservation, and packaging of different types of bloodstains; bloodstain examination techniques, determination of species of origin, history of blood groups, blood grouping systems, blood group determination techniques, characteristics of semen, handling semen evidence, and examination of different types of body fluids like saliva, urine, sweat, human milk, etc.

So join us today to start contributing to criminal investigations and providing expert opinion during legal proceedings.

Course Benefits

Enrolling in this course will equip you with skills and knowledge about various techniques used to perform biological evidence analysis, DNA profiling, and serological testing. You will learn how to analyze blood, semen, and other biological samples and understand the principles of DNA analysis, opening doors to several career opportunities, from forensic labs to crime scene investigations.

Course Outcome

Upon successfully completing this course, you will efficiently analyze and interpret biological evidence using forensic biology and serology techniques, with a strong understanding of the legal and ethical aspects of working with biological samples. You can work with public and private sector forensic labs, as an instructor with forensic institutes, or set up your own lab.

Course Highlights

- Pre-recorded sessions with practical insights about forensic biology and serology equipment

- Lectures by seasoned professionals with expertise in forensic biology

- Industry-specific and comprehensive study material and reference books

- Community of forensic biologists and serologists

- Increased job opportunities with network expansion

  • Level I : Forensic Biology & Serology

    MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY

    This module covers a comprehensive overview of blood, including its introduction, historical context, and essential characteristics. Constituents of blood, including plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, and their roles within the circulatory system are also discussed. The module also focuses on the functions of blood in supporting bodily functions, processes involved in the collection, preservation, and packaging of blood for forensic investigation, and the evidential significance of blood in forensic contexts.

    MODULE 2 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

    In this module, you will learn about blood stains and their historical context, bloodstain categorization into dry and wet types, and the classification of bloodstain patterns, including passive patterns (resulting from the force of gravity), spattered patterns (created by external forces acting on blood), and altered patterns (patterns that undergo changes post-formation). This module will equip you with knowledge of the significance of different bloodstain types and patterns in forensic investigations and how they prove useful during crime scene reconstruction.

    MODULE 3 – IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS

    In this module, you will gain insights about various techniques used to identify and examine blood and bloodstains, including:

    Physical examination methods: Visual and UV/IR examination

    Presumptive tests: Benzidine test, phenolphthalein test (Kastle Mayer test), tetramethylbenzidine test (TMB), luminol test, Leuco malachite green test (LMG), ortho-toluidine test, fluorescein test, and hemastix test

    Confirmatory or microcrystal tests: Hematin (Teichmann test), Acetone-Color Hemin (Wagenaar test), and Hemocromogen (Takayama test)

    The module also introduces you to chromatographic methods, spectrophotometric methods, and electrophoresis techniques, including cellulose acetate electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunological (anti-hemoglobin) tests, along with the Hexagon OBTI Test.

    MODULE 4 – DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN

    This module covers methods to identify the origin of species of biological samples along with their historical overview. Tests for species include the ring test, single diffusion in one and two dimensions, immunoelectrophoresis, rocket immunoelectrophoresis (Laurell Technique), two-dimensional and crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed antiglobulin method, sensitized latex particle method, and rapid immunoassay method.

    The preparation of extracts and lectins is discussed, along with various factors influencing precipitin tests, like precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, diffusion coefficient, optimal environment, and antiserum specificity. You will also learn about determining human and animal origin from various biological sources, including bones, flesh, nails, skin, teeth, fluids and stains, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tears, pus, vomit, etc.

    MODULE 5 – TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP

    This module focuses on advanced techniques in blood grouping, including the latest crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, and absorption elution method (test-tube method, thread method, and ammonia extraction method). You will also learn about the determination of the A and AB sub-groups, as well as the grouping of the Mn and Rh systems. This module will equip you with an understanding of the complex process of blood group identification, which serves as a powerful tool for precise and reliable results in blood-related cases during forensic investigations.

  • Level II : Forensic Biology & Serology

    MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY

    This module covers a comprehensive overview of blood, including its introduction, historical context, and essential characteristics. Constituents of blood, including plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, and their roles within the circulatory system are also discussed. The module also focuses on the functions of blood in supporting bodily functions, processes involved in the collection, preservation, and packaging of blood for forensic investigation, and the evidential significance of blood in forensic contexts.

    MODULE 2 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

    In this module, you will learn about blood stains and their historical context, bloodstain categorization into dry and wet types, and the classification of bloodstain patterns, including passive patterns (resulting from the force of gravity), spattered patterns (created by external forces acting on blood), and altered patterns (patterns that undergo changes post-formation). This module will equip you with knowledge of the significance of different bloodstain types and patterns in forensic investigations and how they prove useful during crime scene reconstruction.

    MODULE 3 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS

    This module focuses on the objectives of interpreting bloodstain patterns, the principles of their analysis, including the direction and angle of impact, and considering external factors that may alter a blood source or drop. The module highlights the significance of photographic documentation in capturing bloodstain patterns and addresses the procedures for collecting, preserving, and packaging liquid, wet, and dry bloodstains. Additionally, the forensic significance of bloodstain analysis is discussed, along with its limitations and related legal and ethical aspects.

    MODULE 4 – IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS

    In this module, you will gain insights about various techniques used to identify and examine blood and bloodstains, including:

    Physical examination methods: Visual and UV/IR examination

    Presumptive tests: Benzidine test, phenolphthalein test (Kastle Mayer test), tetramethylbenzidine test (TMB), luminol test, Leuco malachite green test (LMG), ortho-toluidine test, fluorescein test, and hemastix test

    Confirmatory or microcrystal tests: Hematin (Teichmann test), Acetone-Color Hemin (Wagenaar test), and Hemocromogen (Takayama test)

    The module also introduces you to chromatographic methods, spectrophotometric methods, and electrophoresis techniques, including cellulose acetate electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunological (anti-hemoglobin) tests, along with the Hexagon OBTI Test.

    MODULE 5 – DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN

    This module covers methods to identify the origin of species of biological samples along with their historical overview. Tests for species include the ring test, single diffusion in one and two dimensions, immunoelectrophoresis, rocket immunoelectrophoresis (Laurell Technique), two-dimensional and crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed antiglobulin method, sensitized latex particle method, and rapid immunoassay method.

    The preparation of extracts and lectins is discussed, along with various factors influencing precipitin tests, like precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, diffusion coefficient, optimal environment, and antiserum specificity. You will also learn about determining human and animal origin from various biological sources, including bones, flesh, nails, skin, teeth, fluids and stains, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tears, pus, vomit, etc.

    MODULE 6 – TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP

    This module focuses on advanced techniques in blood grouping, including the latest crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, and absorption elution method (test-tube method, thread method, and ammonia extraction method). You will also learn about the determination of the A and AB sub-groups, as well as the grouping of the Mn and Rh systems. This module will equip you with an understanding of the complex process of blood group identification, which serves as a powerful tool for precise and reliable results in blood-related cases during forensic investigations.

    MODULE 7 – OTHER BODY FLUIDS AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    This module covers an overview of examining various biological fluids within a forensic context, like urine, feces, sweat, nasal secretions, vaginal fluid, tears, vomit, menstrual blood, and human milk. You will gain an understanding of the properties, collection methods, and potential forensic implications related to these bodily fluids.

  • Level III : Forensic Biology & Serology

    MODULE 1 - INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY

    This module covers a comprehensive overview of blood, including its introduction, historical context, and essential characteristics. Constituents of blood, including plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, and their roles within the circulatory system are also discussed. The module also focuses on the functions of blood in supporting bodily functions, processes involved in the collection, preservation, and packaging of blood for forensic investigation, and the evidential significance of blood in forensic contexts.

    MODULE 2 - BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

    In this module, you will learn about blood stains and their historical context, bloodstain categorization into dry and wet types, and the classification of bloodstain patterns, including passive patterns (resulting from the force of gravity), spattered patterns (created by external forces acting on blood), and altered patterns (patterns that undergo changes post-formation). This module will equip you with knowledge of the significance of different bloodstain types and patterns in forensic investigations and how they prove useful during crime scene reconstruction.

    MODULE 3 - BLOODSTAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS

    This module focuses on the objectives of interpreting bloodstain patterns, the principles of their analysis, including the direction and angle of impact, and considering external factors that may alter a blood source or drop. The module highlights the significance of photographic documentation in capturing bloodstain patterns and addresses the procedures for collecting, preserving, and packaging liquid, wet, and dry bloodstains. Additionally, the forensic significance of bloodstain analysis is discussed, along with its limitations and related legal and ethical aspects.

    MODULE 4 - IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS

    In this module, you will gain insights about various techniques used to identify and examine blood and bloodstains, including:

    Physical examination methods: Visual and UV/IR examination

    Presumptive tests: Benzidine test, phenolphthalein test (Kastle Mayer test), tetramethylbenzidine test (TMB), luminol test, Leuco malachite green test (LMG), ortho-toluidine test, fluorescein test, and hemastix test

    Confirmatory or microcrystal tests: Hematin (Teichmann test), Acetone-Color Hemin (Wagenaar test), and Hemocromogen (Takayama test)

    The module also introduces you to chromatographic methods, spectrophotometric methods, and electrophoresis techniques, including cellulose acetate electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunological (anti-hemoglobin) tests, along with the Hexagon OBTI Test.

    MODULE 5 - DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN

    This module covers methods to identify the origin of species of biological samples along with their historical overview. Tests for species include the ring test, single diffusion in one and two dimensions, immunoelectrophoresis, rocket immunoelectrophoresis (Laurell Technique), two-dimensional and crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed antiglobulin method, sensitized latex particle method, and rapid immunoassay method.

    The preparation of extracts and lectins is discussed, along with various factors influencing precipitin tests, like precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, diffusion coefficient, optimal environment, and antiserum specificity. You will also learn about determining human and animal origin from various biological sources, including bones, flesh, nails, skin, teeth, fluids and stains, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tears, pus, vomit, etc.

    MODULE 6 - SEROGENETIC MARKER

    In this module, you will be introduced to the concept of blood grouping along with its historical development, blood grouping systems (ABO, Rh, MN, and others), the biochemistry and genetics underlying these systems, various methods of ABO blood grouping, including wet and dry methods, and blood group-specific ABH substances, including secretor/non-secretor status and Lewis antigen.

    The module also covers polymorphic enzyme typing, including phosphoglucomutase (PGM), glyoxalase (GLO-I), esterase D (ESD), adenylate kinase (AK), adenosine deaminase (ADA), erythrocyte acid phosphatase (ESD), and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD).

    The concept of electrophoresis of serum proteins, human leukocyte antigen typing, the role of serogenetic markers in individualization, paternity disputes, pitfalls in red cell typing, and new approaches in blood stain grouping are also covered.

    MODULE 7 - TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUPS

    This module focuses on advanced techniques in blood grouping, including the latest crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, and absorption elution method (test-tube method, thread method, and ammonia extraction method). You will also learn about the determination of the A and AB sub-groups, as well as the grouping of the Mn and Rh systems. This module will equip you with an understanding of the complex process of blood group identification, which serves as a powerful tool for precise and reliable results in blood-related cases during forensic investigations.

    MODULE 8 - SEMEN

    In this module, you will learn about the process of semen examination in forensic investigations, its historical significance, characteristics, constituents, and evidential significance in forensic analysis, along with the method to meticulously collect, preserve, and package semen evidence.

    Evaluation involving physical examination (visual and UV/IR examination), along with presumptive tests (acid phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, spermin crystal test, and choline crystal test), microscopic examination for spermatozoa (LDH and AP iso-enzymes), and advanced techniques like crossover electrophoresis are also discussed.

    MODULE 9 - OTHER BODY FLUIDS AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    This module covers an overview of examining various biological fluids within a forensic context, like urine, feces, sweat, nasal secretions, vaginal fluid, tears, vomit, menstrual blood, and human milk. You will gain an understanding of the properties, collection methods, and potential forensic implications related to these bodily fluids.

  • What steps should I follow to enroll in this online course?

    To enroll, click on the “Register for Course” option available on the right side of the screen, followed by the provided instructions and payment procedure.

  • Can I pay directly to the bank account of SIFS India?

    Yes, you have the option to make a direct payment to the bank account of SIFS India;, all you have to do is write an email at education@sifs.in requesting the bank details. 

  • Which documents I have to upload at the time of enrollment?

    Academic Qualification Documents, Professional Qualification Certificates, and National ID Proof or Passport Copy are required at the time of enrollment.  

  • What if I am unable to upload my documents?

    Kindly send your necessary documents with proof of payment to admission@sifs.in.

  • How will I receive confirmation once I have completed the payment procedure?

    An Admission Confirmation email will be sent with your portal credentials once the proof of payment and application form with all the necessary documents are received at admission@sifs.in.

  • How do I login to the portal for my online course?

    To login, visit the portal at the given link: https://www.sifs.in/student and enter your login credentials, i.e., your username and password shared via email. 

  • What study material access will I have after logging into the portal?

    After logging into the portal, you will have access to reading material, reference eBooks, and e-research papers.

  • Will I receive any assignments during my course duration?

    Yes, all your assignments, projects, case studies and practice tests will be assigned to you through your portal as per the level you will be enrolled in.

  • What technical prerequisites are necessary for an online course?

    You can easily access our online course on mobile / tablet devices. We highly recommend that you use your desktop or laptop and a reliable internet connection for a better view.

  • Will there be any exams after completing the course?

    Yes, there will be an online exam after completing the course.

  • Will I receive any certificates after completing the online course?

    Yes, upon successful completion of the course, you will receive a certificate and marksheet, which can be a valuable addition to your resume and may enhance your career prospects in the field.

  • Where to contact in case of any queries or technical support?

    Write to us at admission@sifs.in, call: +91-1147074263, or WhatsApp: +91-7303913002.

Robert Knight Case Study

In March 1990, in Virginia, a dead body of a young female, Dawn Bruce, aged 22 years, was found at her home.

She was sexually assaulted and stabbed to death. However, investigators could not find enough physical evidence at the crime scene except for a blood-stained pillowcase lying next to the victim’s body.

The pillowcase for examination was transported to the Forensic Unit of Henrico County Police.

Upon in-depth examination, a faint stain was discovered that exhibited ridge details.

Also, it was suspected that a few of the stains might have been transferred from the knife blade, although no knife was found at the crime scene.

The fingerprint found was the only potential evidence and was transferred to the Virginia Division of Forensic Science in Richmond.

A new chemical called 1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) was not widely used at that time. It was applied to the bloodstain, made to fluoresce, and the print was photographed after development.

However, the ridge quality was very poor, and the fabric weave was distorted. Hence, the print could not be used as evidence to catch the culprit.

Then Hunter Graphic Information Systems in Charlotte, North Carolina, used the latest image enhancement techniques to improve the latent fingerprint’s image quality.

It took nearly four hours to enhance the image, and the resulting image was clear enough to be used for identification purposes.

Several people were investigated. However, the primary suspect was the victim’s next-door neighbor, Robert Knight.

His prints were recorded previously but were not rolled end-to-end, and hence did not contain enough ridge details to be compared with prints found on the pillow.

Also, the print from the crime scene seemed to be from the finger side, and therefore he could not be arrested.

During the post-mortem examination of the victim’s body, semen was found on her leg. During the initial serological examination, it matched the suspect, who had a rare blood type. This led to the issuing of a warrant.

On August 7, the same year, the latent print found at the crime scene was compared with the suspect’s full set of fingerprints.

Knight’s left thumb almost matched the crime scene print. Also, DNA analysis confirmed the offender’s identity, which turned out to be Knight, her neighbor.

The defense during the trial questioned the truthfulness of image enhancement techniques as they were relatively new at the time and hence could not be potentially worth considering.

However, a complete image-enhancing process was presented before the court from start to finish by the experts, and ultimately, the evidence was considered admissible.

During the trial, new evidence also came to light. A knife hidden in a pipe case was discovered by a maintenance man in the defendant’s apartment.

This was the knife used to attack the victim, and the blood stains found on the blade were in sync with those found on the pillow.

Robert Knight was found guilty of murdering Dawn Bruce, and on June 18, 1991, he was given four life sentences.

Sannidhi D D

5

This was a great experience to know more things about forensic biology and serology which is helpful for the forensic science student and even for much more broad use .Thank you so much sir for brushing up us to shine later in future. And I am going to surely use the knowledge in my field as much as possible and effective .

Rithiksha Ramesh

4

The course provided was amazing I could understand the things and learnt many things. Looking forward for more. 

Aachal Ashok Kiranpure

4

It was a great experience to learn the things. As I am in first year I learned many things and got very good knowledge about it. It was awesome course and I would like to thank SIFS for such a wonderful course. It's been a wonderful experience.

Sumit Surendra Gadling

4

The course was really very good and interactive. I learned a lot and every bit of content was very interesting and informative, 

Vaishali Wahi

4

It's very nice and good course. Thankyou SIFS for such informative initiative. 

 

Instructors

Dr. Khushali Joshi

Dr. Khushali Joshi

Forensic Instructor
Dr. Ranjeet Singh

Dr. Ranjeet Singh

Managing Director

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