Course Introduction

FSP 401 : DNA Fingerprinting

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  • Curriculum
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DNA Fingerprinting, also termed as DNA Profiling, Genotyping, DNA Typing or Genetic Fingerprinting is one of the most recent advancements in Forensic Science. This technique was discovered by Sir. Alec Jeffreys in 1984. While going through this network, he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as minisatellites), do not contribute to the functions of genes, and are repeated within genes. Jeffreys recognized that each individual has a unique pattern of minisatellites (the only exceptions being multiple individuals from a single zygote, such as identical twins). For the extraction of DNA, a sample of cells such as skin, hair, blood, saliva etc. is required.


According to this technique, the DNA is extracted from the cells of skin, hair, blood, saliva etc., and then it is purified. Jeffrey’s original approach was based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). In the RFLP technology, the DNA was cut at specific points along the strand with proteins known as restriction enzymes. The enzymes produced fragments of varying lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to an electric current (electrophoresis): the shorter the fragment, the more quickly it moved toward the positive pole (anode). The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments were then subjected to a blotting technique in which they were split into single strands and transferred to a nylon sheet. The fragments underwent autoradiography in which they were exposed to DNA probes—pieces of synthetic DNA that were made radioactive and that bound to the minisatellites. A piece of X-ray film was then exposed to the fragments, and a dark mark was produced at any point where a radioactive probe had become attached. The resultant pattern of marks could then be analyzed. Other than RFLP, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Short Tandem Repeats (STR) and Variable Number Tandem Repeats are also used for the analysis procedure.


DNA Fingerprinting technique is used in cases of sexual assaults, missing persons, paternity-maternity issues and certain other criminal cases. This course structure would make the students aware of the complex techniques and analytical methods employed by the scientists in DNA Profiling, and the revolution that the discovery of DNA Fingerprinting brought into the criminal investigation system.

  • Level I : DNA Fingerprinting

    MODULE 1 – CONCEPT AND FUNDAMENTALS OF DNA

    This module gives the information about the DNA fingerprinting such as structure of DNA, packaging and how it is used for the criminal investigation purpose. DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique for establishing the identity of an individual and to create a link between the biological evidence and a suspect in criminal investigation. This module covers the experiments of DNA and RNA, which is used as a genetic material, and also contain the information about, how it helps in criminal investigation.

    MODULE 2 – TYPES OF DNA AND RNA

    Present module describes detailed information about DNA and RNA and the types of DNA and RNA. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a genetic material and carries the genetic information and of three types which are, B- DNA, A- DNA and Z- DNA. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is also defined in this module and the structure and types are also mentioned. RNA is single stranded molecules which helps in protein synthesis and are of three types such as, m- RNA, t- RNA and r- RNA.

    MODULE 3 – HUMAN GENETICS

    This module defines the information of human genetics and their developmental history. The concept of gene such as structure of gene, history, split gene, pseudo gene, non-coding gene, overlapping gene and multi gene families are also described. This module also tells about the Mendelian inheritance, multiple alleles, human genome structure and its delivery. The causes, types and detection of mutation and heredity and the variation in human genetics are also very well defined in this module. It includes molecular basis of heritable human diseases, gene mapping and human genome project.

    MODULE 5 – EXTRACTION AND EVOLUTION OF DNA 

    This module defines the DNA, a genetic material used for the individualization and the method through which, DNA can be extracted from the different sources: blood, semen, saliva, bones, hair, teeth, body tissues and nails. This module also include the function of restriction enzymes through which the DNA are recognized at a specific site. The DNA Extraction methods include the Organic (Phenol-Chloroform) Extraction, Non-Organic (Proteinase K and Salting out), Chelex (Ion Exchange Resin) Extraction, FTA Paper, Silica Based (Silica Exchange Resin-Qiagen) and Qia Amp Extraction. DNA is found in very low quantity which create the problem for the examination, for this problem, the PCR technique is used to increase the DNA quantity. DNA is analyzed through Slot-Blot Method (Quantitative), Yield-gel Analysis (Qualitative), UV/Visible Spectrophotometer, Gel Electrophoresis and Southern Blotting.

    MODULE 6 – DNA FINGERPRINTING

    This module contains DNA fingerprinting which is a method used to individualize the person through its unique pattern. Every individual has the different pattern/ sequences called polymorphism. These patterns are detected by different methods i.e. HLA typing, RFLP analysis and PCR amplification. By the help of DNA, the sex determination can be estimated through the techniques like AMP FLP, RAPD, Y-STR and Mitochondrial DNA. Now days, DNA are analyzed through the DNA chip, an advance technique.

  • Level II : DNA Fingerprinting

    MODULE 1 – CONCEPT AND FUNDAMENTALS OF DNA

    This module gives the information about the DNA fingerprinting such as structure of DNA, packaging and how it is used for the criminal investigation purpose. DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique for establishing the identity of an individual and to create a link between the biological evidence and a suspect in criminal investigation. This module covers the experiments of DNA and RNA, which is used as a genetic material, and also contain the information about, how it helps in criminal investigation.

    MODULE 2 – TYPES OF DNA AND RNA

    Present module describes detailed information about DNA and RNA and the types of DNA and RNA. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a genetic material and carries the genetic information and of three types which are, B- DNA, A- DNA and Z- DNA. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is also defined in this module and the structure and types are also mentioned. RNA is single stranded molecules which helps in protein synthesis and are of three types such as, m- RNA, t- RNA and r- RNA.

    MODULE 3 – HUMAN GENETICS

    This module defines the information of human genetics and their developmental history. The concept of gene such as structure of gene, history, split gene, pseudo gene, non-coding gene, overlapping gene and multi gene families are also described. This module also tells about the Mendelian inheritance, multiple alleles, human genome structure and its delivery. The causes, types and detection of mutation and heredity and the variation in human genetics are also very well defined in this module. It includes molecular basis of heritable human diseases, gene mapping and human genome project.

    MODULE 4 – EXTRACTION AND EVOLUTION OF DNA

    This module defines the DNA, a genetic material used for the individualization and the method through which, DNA can be extracted from the different sources: blood, semen, saliva, bones, hair, teeth, body tissues and nails. This module also include the function of restriction enzymes through which the DNA are recognized at a specific site. The DNA Extraction methods include the Organic (Phenol-Chloroform) Extraction, Non-Organic (Proteinase K and Salting out), Chelex (Ion Exchange Resin) Extraction, FTA Paper, Silica Based (Silica Exchange Resin-Qiagen) and Qia Amp Extraction. DNA is found in very low quantity which create the problem for the examination, for this problem, the PCR technique is used to increase the DNA quantity. DNA is analyzed through Slot-Blot Method (Quantitative), Yield-gel Analysis (Qualitative), UV/Visible Spectrophotometer, Gel Electrophoresis and Southern Blotting.

    MODULE 5 – DNA FINGERPRINTING

    This module contains DNA fingerprinting which is a method used to individualize the person through its unique pattern. Every individual has the different pattern/ sequences called polymorphism. These patterns are detected by different methods i.e. HLA typing, RFLP analysis and PCR amplification. By the help of DNA, the sex determination can be estimated through the techniques like AMP FLP, RAPD, Y-STR and Mitochondrial DNA. Now days, DNA are analyzed through the DNA chip, an advance technique

    MODULE 6 – EVALUATION OF RESULT CONTAMINATION OF DNA FINGERPRINTING

    This procedure is used as one worth of identification once an assailant has left some kind of biological fluid or blood sample at the crime scene and when no visual credentials is possible. It will define you isolation from blood, purification and quantifications, preparation of lectins and testing their activities against body fluids & tissues, frequency calculations, interpretation, allele frequency determination, Match probability- database and quality control and certification and accreditation.

  • Level III : DNA Fingerprinting

    MODULE 1 – CONCEPT AND FUNDAMENTALS OF DNA

    This module gives the information about the DNA fingerprinting such as structure of DNA, packaging and how it is used for the criminal investigation purpose. DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique for establishing the identity of an individual and to create a link between the biological evidence and a suspect in criminal investigation. This module covers the experiments of DNA and RNA, which is used as a genetic material, and also contain the information about, how it helps in criminal investigation.

    MODULE 2 – TYPES OF DNA AND RNA

    Present module describes detailed information about DNA and RNA and the types of DNA and RNA. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a genetic material and carries the genetic information and of three types which are, B- DNA, A- DNA and Z- DNA. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is also defined in this module and the structure and types are also mentioned. RNA is single stranded molecules which helps in protein synthesis and are of three types such as, m- RNA, t- RNA and r- RNA.

    MODULE 3 – HUMAN GENETICS

    This module defines the information of human genetics and their developmental history. The concept of gene such as structure of gene, history, split gene, pseudo gene, non-coding gene, overlapping gene and multi gene families are also described. This module also tells about the Mendelian inheritance, multiple alleles, human genome structure and its delivery. The causes, types and detection of mutation and heredity and the variation in human genetics are also very well defined in this module. It includes molecular basis of heritable human diseases, gene mapping and human genome project.

    MODULE 4 – POPULATION GENETICS

    This module define the Population genetics is a subdivision of genetics that deal with the genetic difference within and between the populations. On the basis of genetic drift and inbreeding coefficient, the medelian population is defined. This module also include the allele and genotype frequencies which remain constant throughout the population in the absence of evolutionary influence defined by Hardy – Weinberg because the gene flow occur from one generation to another generation. Sometime the unfavorable genetic material (genetic load) in the genes of a population due to the mutation.

    MODULE 5 – EXTRACTION AND EVOLUTION OF DNA

    This module defines the DNA, a genetic material used for the individualization and the method through which, DNA can be extracted from the different sources: blood, semen, saliva, bones, hair, teeth, body tissues and nails. This module also include the function of restriction enzymes through which the DNA are recognized at a specific site. The DNA Extraction methods include the Organic (Phenol-Chloroform) Extraction, Non-Organic (Proteinase K and Salting out), Chelex (Ion Exchange Resin) Extraction, FTA Paper, Silica Based (Silica Exchange Resin-Qiagen) and Qia Amp Extraction. DNA is found in very low quantity which create the problem for the examination, for this problem, the PCR technique is used to increase the DNA quantity. DNA is analyzed through Slot-Blot Method (Quantitative), Yield-gel Analysis (Qualitative), UV/Visible Spectrophotometer, Gel Electrophoresis and Southern Blotting.

    MODULE 6 – DNA FINGERPRINTING

    This module contains DNA fingerprinting which is a method used to individualize the person through its unique pattern. Every individual has the different pattern/ sequences called polymorphism. These patterns are detected by different methods i.e. HLA typing, RFLP analysis and PCR amplification. By the help of DNA, the sex determination can be estimated through the techniques like AMP FLP, RAPD, Y-STR and Mitochondrial DNA. Now days, DNA are analyzed through the DNA chip, an advance technique.

    MODULE 7 – EVALUATION OF RESULT CONTAMINATION OF DNA FINGERPRINTING

    This procedure is used as one worth of identification once an assailant has left some kind of biological fluid or blood sample at the crime scene and when no visual credentials is possible. It will define you isolation from blood, purification and quantifications, preparation of lectins and testing their activities against body fluids & tissues, frequency calculations, interpretation, allele frequency determination, Match probability- database and quality control and certification and accreditation.

    MODULE 8 – IMPORTANCE AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVES OF DNA FINGERPRINTING

    This module is framed to make the students understand what actually DNA fingerprinting is all about. This module would help students gather information and use of application of DNA techniques in the legal proceedings. Under this module, legal standard for admissibility of DNA profiling- procedural & ethical concerns and status of development of DNA profiling in India & abroad.

  • What is DNA Fingerprinting?

    In DNA Fingerprinting, the learners will be acquainted with importance of science and techniques involved in the isolation and detection of DNA in cases pertaining to the identification of the culprit in sexual assault cases, paternity-maternity issues etc.

  • How can I become a DNA Fingerprinting Expert?

    The DNA Fingerprinting has a lot to offer and the handling and analysis of biological evidence is an Expert’s work. The learner, through the course, is made well aware of the basics of the DNA as the genetic material and challenges to the cases that might be faced as an expert. Hence, providing excellence through professional views and with some training as well.

  • What are the responsibilities of a DNA Fingerprinting Expert?

    The Expert has to perform routine DNA tests and tackle the cases of sexual assaults, paternity-maternity issues, missing persons and other related criminal offenses. The evidence of such cases has to be handled with utmost care and precision. The expert has to opine unbiased following the analysis. 

  • What are the scope and the opportunistic aspects of the course?

    The learner may look out for job opportunities in Forensic laboratories both at private and Government level. They can work as a Faculty in any college/university of Forensic major. Additionally, they can opt for working as a medical practitioner in testing laboratories as well. 

  • Where can I contact in case of any queries?

    You can write to us at education@sifs.in or call us at +91-1147074263 or WhatsApp us +91-7303913002 or +91-7303913003.


Lynda Mann Murder Case

A fifteen year old school girl, Lynda Mann was abducted in Narbourough, England. The next day, her body was discovered raped and murdered.  Three years later, another young woman met the same fate near Lynda’s resting place. Richard Buckland was arrested and confessed to the second murder only.  An untested technique was applied; ‘genetic fingerprinting’ through DNA analysis. Surprisingly, there was no match in either murder, so the test was repeated. Ultimately, Buckland was proven innocent. As to why he confessed, he claimed he had been pressured by police.

5,500 men from the local area were then tested. Colin Pitchfork persuaded a friend to test in his place, but when he bragged about fooling the investigators, he was overheard and reported. His genetic profile matched the semen samples from both girls, and in 1987 he became the first murderer convicted by DNA.

Dhruv Shyam Vimal

5

It was really a great time to study VIRTUALLY because of immense effort, sheer dedication, strong determination and hard work of Dr Ranjeet Singh and his team in making this course informative. Would definitely recommend ANYONE INSIDE/OUTSIDE India to contact SIFS for Learning or seeking forensic expert service. Dr Ranjeet is really a good, intelligent, determined and strong-willed power person.

Dr Sisira S N

5

Am really thankful to SIFS for this wonderful online courses.. As a beginner it was really helpful for all of me.Thank you.

Anchal Kaluram Chahande

4

Thank u for a great course , a really enjoyable and informative course great presentation.

Ronnie Tamburike Mwaenga

5

This course was worth taking from the SIFS who have invested their all efforts into forming the content and helping in the evaluation of the student. Appreciable. 

Manisha Verma

4
Really helpful course with great material and commendable support from the instructors. 

 

Instructors

Kratika Mishra

Kratika Mishra

Senior Scientific Officer

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