MODULE 1 – FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY
Skeletal remains as evidence are frequently encountered in numerous cases and send to laboratories for identification which covers under the broad area of Forensic Anthropology, which is the application of Anthropology. Forensic Anthropologist plays an important role in identifying an individual with the help of skeletal remains. In this particular chapter, scholars will know about the history, scope, and significance of Forensic Anthropology. Scholars can pursue careers as Forensic Anthropologist as it is one of the most interesting fields in which just skeletal remains will help you in determining the victim's age, sex, and ancestry.
MODULE 2 – FORENSIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND SCENE PROCESSING METHOD
Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology. Forensic Archeology and scene processing method focuses on various basic principles and excavation techniques used by forensic archeologists to ensure that remains are recovered in control and forensically acceptable manner. After going through this section apprentices will have knowledge about the three main areas i.e. How to assist with crime scene research, Investigating and recovery of the evidence, and/ or skeletal remains. However, on the other hand, detailed information regarding scene documentation along with evidence collection and packaging which is of prime importance will be imparted. It should always be kept in mind that the evidence loses its credibility if the chain of custody not maintained properly.
MODULE 3 – HUMAN OSTEOLOGY
The word Osteology is comprised of two Greek words Osteon implies bones and Logy means to study, therefore osteology in its broad sense refers to the scientific study of bones. Human Osteology is the branch of osteology that involves the study of human bones and the human skeletal system. It is a broad discipline that generally comprises the growth and development of bones along with their structure and functions. This discipline has covered the basic concepts of bones and the terminology associated with it. Study of skeletal anatomy i.e. study of both axial and appendicular skeleton or a number of bones of both upper as well as lower extremities is considered to be an important aspect of human osteology which provides aid to the forensic anthropologists. This study along with other parameters not only helped in gender differentiation but also proves to be very significant for the purpose of individualization.
MODULE 4 – SOMATOSCOPY
Here in this module scholars will get to know more about one of the basic anthropometric measurement technique i.e. Somatoscopy which mainly deals with visual observation of different parts of the human body. In this anthropologist describes those features human morphological body which cannot be observed through metrical analysis.
MODULE 5 – SOMATOMETRY
Somatometry is one of another anthropometric measurement techniques which aids in expressing the descriptions through metric values. For this numerous measurements have been formulated by anthropologists for taking faultless measurements on the living and skeleton as well.
MODULE 6 – OSTEOMETRY
This course provides a broad overview of Osteometry to the scholar. Osteometry is another anthropometric measurements techniques which deal with the measurement of bones, which helps in comparing the skeletons of different populations
MODULE 7 – CRANIOMETRY
This main aim of this course is provide complete knowledge about Craniometry, which is another anthropometric measurement technique. Craniometry is a measurement of the main part of the skull for establishing the differences between groups of population. Here in this module scholars will be taught about different instruments used for taking measurements with this, scholars will also come to know about different craniometric techniques used.
MODULE 8 – INDIVIDUALIZATION THROUGH BONES
This module focuses on the study of various bones and their characteristics, helping the reader understand the concept of establishing the identity of a person whether living or dead through bones, it also sheds light on medico-legal aspect of identity. One should always provide knowledge in a flow, such as the sketch of this segment. It explains the whole identification process in a well-structured manner starting with the establishment of origin, following sex, age, and race determination through various bones found from grave, crime scene, or in case of living person too. As explained earlier, individualization through bones is the most important part of forensic science by dint help we can estimate the age of dead person and alive person, identification of the race, and in order to identify the sex of the human bones can prove to be very useful for us. We can identify the age with the help of a fetus, teeth, bones ossification, and suture and we can tell the accurate age of the human being with the help of bones. This module also emphases on facial reconstruction, various methods of reconstruction will be covered, which will eventually help recognize culprit or deceased.
MODULE 9 – ESTIMATION OF ANCESTRY
Forensic anthropologists tend to examine and determine the ancestry of a skeleton by merely examining the morphology, or shape, of the skull and by taking measurements of the skull vault (cavity) and face. By comparing these results with data from populations worldwide, scientists can evaluate that individual's relationship to a world group. Estimation of ancestry is a module that will focus on craniometric analysis and postcranial methods and will enrich the reader with the knowledge of measurement of the cranium.
MODULE 10 – FIELDS METHODS
This module deals with the very significant aspect of the investigation process i.e. Field Methods. It holds all the relevant information regarding field procedures which includes preplanning of fieldwork and the ante-mortem information. Also, it deals with the exposure, processing, and recording of archeological remains i.e. Excavation and Disinterment. As it comprises elements of dead remains, this module also contains the investigation process of Burial Location and Burial Classification. It also covers the very important feature of investigation i.e. Post Mortem Interval (PMI) and Time since Death of dead person keeping in mind the process of decomposition. Lastly, the quality checks for the fieldwork so as to make it accurate for investigation.
MODULE 11 – LAB PROCEDURE AND REPORTING
Setting up a professional lab with all the equipment's is very essential in order to have a proper environment. Examination and techniques such as photography, radiography, microscopy, molding and casting, computing, and curating plays a very important role in the evaluation of any evidence. In this module, we will be focusing on such important techniques. On their principle, working, and significance. Brief information on legal and ethical considerations will be provided here.