Course Introduction

FSP 103 : Document & Handwriting Examination

  • Course Outline
  • Curriculum
  • FAQ
  • Case Studies
  • Reviews

    Document, can be defined as any material either movable or immovable, that holds a written, printed, or drawn inscription. On the contrary, a questioned document is elucidated as any text or document whose authenticity or legitimacy has been questioned, or is considered to be skeptical. In this course listed as Questioned Document Examination, the students will be taught an introduction about the documents, the categories they are categorized into. In addition, the students will be enlightened about the veracity of the document examination, its application in case solving. The cases broadly considered into the Questioned Document section are signature verification, handwriting verification, and examination, the examination of inauthentic computer-generated documents, the examination of printed documents, counterfeit currency.

     

    In a simple manner, the entire science of Questioned Document Examination rests on the day by day increasing forgery and foulplay related to documents. The examination generally relates to the documents as agreement, deed, property papers, wills, cheques, and stamps. The document examiner also checks for the presence of any other criminal activity as addition, deletion, insertion, or obliteration in the concerned document. The primary concern of a Forensic Document Examiner is to decipher the type of forgery, and then after scientifically prepare a report considering the various aspects which are to be taken into account while conducting the examination.

     

    The students will learn about the fundamentals of handwriting, the science of handwriting is a neuro-muscular task which involves proper co-ordination of the brain with muscles. It is due to this fact that-one can copy one’s writing, but this cannot be done with cent-percent accuracy, efficiency, and perfection. Even in case of monozygotic/ identical twins, who share similar appearances and genetic structures do not bear the same handwriting. Therefore, this science is competently as reliable as the science of fingerprint.

     

    The parameters that are looked upon during the Questioned Document Examination are generally classified into two:

     

    Class characteristics, as the name itself clarifies, are the characteristics that may remain common to a class of people. The class characteristics include features as slant, slope, alignment, direction, line quality, size and proportion, spacing, skill of writing, style, and connection, pen pressure, pen lifts, pen movement, and speed. After a detailed and full-proof examination of class characteristics, an approach towards the individual characteristics should be made.

     

    Individual characteristics, refer to the characteristics which are unique to every individual. Every individual possesses his own writing style, his own way of forming letters in a peculiar manner. Therefore, these characteristics are said to be individual in nature as they bear a tinge of individuality in themselves. The points that are considered in these characteristics are i-dot, t-crossbar, and similarly formation of other alphabets.

     

    After a comprehensive study of the theoretical and practical aspects of this course, students would feel well-equipped with the ability of deciphering the odd from the genuine. 

  • Level I : Document & Handwriting Examination

    MODULE 1 – QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION

    In several cases, a document is existing that is evidently of a certain means, required to prove the authentic meaning by questioned document examiner. Forensic questioned document analysis will very often involve the study of document, questioned document analysis U/S 463 of IPC, standard exemplars, scientific examination of documents, nature and problem related to documents, the importance of photographic evidence, handling and preservation of questioned, and standard exemplars.

    MODULE 2 – HANDWRITING

    Handwriting is an autonomous and continuous feature of human beings. Handwriting is used as the identification of an individual as each and every individual has its unique handwriting characteristics. This module covers the basic characteristics feature of handwriting which signifies the individuality of a person. It also includes the various factors which affect the handwriting either naturally or intentionally.

    MODULE 3 – HANDWRITING EXAMINATION

    Examination and comparison of the handwriting are based on some abbreviations by its nature, alignment, arrangement, connections, initial stroke, pen lifts, pen pressure, punctuation, rhythm, shading, size, slope, terminal stroke, tremor, and the individual features. It is thoroughly examined during the examination of the writing variations. The typical problems involved in handwriting identification and disguised handwriting are also kept in account while conducting an examination.

    MODULE 4 – IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNATURE AND FORGERIES

    The students will learn all aspects of signatures, which will enhance their skills in examination and report writing. Introduction to signature identification, genuine signatures, accidental variations- receipt signatures, signatures influenced by alcohol and drugs and illness and old age, forged and distorted/ disguised signatures- traced forgeries, simulated forgeries, spurious signatures and spouse’s limitations, identification of the initials and illiterate’s marks, evaluating non-original signatures, and forgery by transplanting a genuine signature are the key-points summed up in this module.

    MODULE 5 – OTHER TYPES OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    The other type of questioned documents like Alterations, erasures and obliterations often are certain very important factors in examining documents with the help of light sources, ultraviolet light, chemical solvents, etc. The module defines the evaluation of editing present in documents, nature of alteration, nature of erasures, types of erasures, nature of obliteration, overwriting, and insertions.

  • Level II : Document & Handwriting Examination

    MODULE 1 – QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION

    In several cases, a document is existing that is evidently of a certain means, required to prove the authentic meaning by questioned document examiner. Forensic questioned document analysis will very often involve the study of document, questioned document analysis U/S 463 of IPC, standard exemplars, scientific examination of documents, nature and problem related to documents, the importance of photographic evidence, handling and preservation of questioned and standard exemplars.

    MODULE 2 – HANDWRITING

    Handwriting is an autonomous and continuous feature of human beings. Handwriting is used as the identification of an individual as each and every individual has its unique handwriting characteristics. This module covers the basic characteristics feature of handwriting which signifies the individuality of a person. It also includes the various factors which affect the handwriting either naturally or intentionally.

    MODULE 3 – HANDWRITING EXAMINATION

    Examination and comparison of the handwriting are based on some abbreviations by its nature, alignment, arrangement, connections, initial stroke, pen lifts, pen pressure, punctuation, rhythm, shading, size, slope, terminal stroke, tremor, and the individual features. It is thoroughly examined during the examination of the writing variations. The typical problems involved in handwriting identification and disguised handwriting are also kept in account while conducting an examination.

    MODULE 4 – IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNATURE AND FORGERIES

    The students will learn all aspects of signatures, which will enhance their skills in examination and report writing. Introduction to signature identification, genuine signatures, accidental variations- receipt signatures, signatures influenced by alcohol and drugs and illness and old age, forged and distorted/ disguised signatures- traced forgeries, simulated forgeries, spurious signatures and spouse’s limitations, identification of the initials and illiterate’s marks, evaluating non-original signatures, and forgery by transplanting a genuine signature are the key-points summed up in this module.

    MODULE 5 – WRITING/PRINTING INSTRUMENTS AND EXAMINATION OF DOCUMENTS PRODUCED

    Alterations, erasures, and obliterations often are certain very important factors in examining documents with the help of light sources, ultraviolet light, chemical solvents, etc. The module defines the evaluation of editing present in documents, nature of alteration, nature of erasures, types of erasures, nature of obliteration, overwriting, and insertions.

    MODULE 6 – OTHER TYPES OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    The other type of questioned documents like Alterations, erasures and obliterations often are certain very important factors in examining documents with the help of light sources, ultraviolet light, chemical solvents, etc. The module defines the evaluation of editing present in documents, nature of alteration, nature of erasures, types of erasures, nature of obliteration, overwriting, and insertions.

    MODULE 7 – SECURITY FEATURES IN DIFFERENT TYPE OF DOCUMENTS

    Due to some reasons like identity theft, frauds, money laundering, monetary gaining, etc., there are many authentic documents fraudulently altered and forged. This module includes all vital aspects of security features in various documents, such as - PAN card, TAN card, voter ID card, driving license, UID Aadhaar card, passport, stamp, and e-stamp paper, bankers cheque, QR code, and Bar code and identification features of Indian and other currency

    MODULE 8 – TECHNIQUE AND INSTRUMENT USED IN DOCUMENT EXAMINATION

    This module deals with the various non-destructive and destructive technique and instrument used in document examination such as Magnifying Glass/Lens, Scales, Camera Microscope, Stereomicroscope, Comparison Microscope, Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), Visible Light, Ultra-Violet and Infra-Red Rays, Chromatography, Spectrometry. During document examination, the most preferred techniques are non-destructive techniques as it will not create any kind of alteration in the questioned document.

  • Level III : Document & Handwriting Examination

    MODULE 1 – QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION

    In several cases, a document is existing that is evidently of a certain means, required to prove the authentic meaning by questioned document examiner. Forensic questioned document analysis will very often involve the study of document, questioned document analysis U/S 463 of IPC, standard exemplars, scientific examination of documents, nature and problem related to documents, the importance of photographic evidence, handling and preservation of questioned and standard exemplars.

    MODULE 2 – PHOTOGRAPHY OF DOCUMENT

    Photographs are considered to be the most relevant evidence in cases that deal with the examination of documents found on either usual surfaces or on unusual surfaces like writings or any other textual material found on walls, or on mirrors, etc. Hence this module includes the photographic techniques used for the examination of identification. Different photographic techniques including oblique light photography, transmitted light photography, ultraviolet photography, infrared photography, and photography using lasers are applied for photographing the writings found on conventional surfaces like on paper, books, boards, etc.

    MODULE 3 – HANDWRITING

    Handwriting is an autonomous and continuous feature of human beings. Handwriting is used as the identification of an individual as each and every individual has its unique handwriting characteristics. This module covers the basic characteristics feature of handwriting which signifies the individuality of a person. It also includes the various factors which affect the handwriting either naturally or intentionally.

    MODULE 4 – HANDWRITING EXAMINATION

    Examination and comparison of the handwriting are based on some abbreviations by its nature, alignment, arrangement, connections, initial stroke, pen lifts, pen pressure, punctuation, rhythm, shading, size, slope, terminal stroke, tremor, and the individual features. It is thoroughly examined during the examination of the writing variations. The typical problems involved in handwriting identification and disguised handwriting are also kept in account while conducting an examination.

    MODULE 5 – IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNATURE AND FORGERIES

    The students will learn all aspects of signatures, which will enhance their skills in examination and report writing. Introduction to signature identification, genuine signatures, accidental variations- receipt signatures, signatures influenced by alcohol and drugs and illness and old age, forged and distorted/ disguised signatures- traced forgeries, simulated forgeries, spurious signatures and spouse’s limitations, identification of the initials and illiterate’s marks, evaluating non-original signatures, and forgery by transplanting a genuine signature are the key-points summed up in this module.

    MODULE 6 – PAPER AND INK ANALYSIS

    The paper and ink analysis plays a very important role in the examination of the questioned documents. This module focusses on the examination of the paper and ink which is helpful in the estimation of the age of the document. Different types of inks are available which is used for the purpose of writing and are formed by the mixture of various chemicals.

    MODULE 7 – WRITING/PRINTING INSTRUMENTS AND EXAMINATION OF DOCUMENTS PRODUCED

    From painting walls to chiseling the walls with stone, evolution has occurred even in the instruments of writing. Modern form of writing instruments includes pen, pencil, chalk, crayons, etc. that have characteristic features of itself affecting the style of the writer. The approach for the examination of both handwritten (by forms of pen and pencil) and computer-generated documents like typewritten, printed, photocopied, fax or scanned, requires extensive knowledge of the origin and trends of the various instruments and machines that were introduced till the time. This module includes the various type of instruments used for the examination of document either printed or written.

    MODULE 8 – OTHER TYPES OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT AND THEIR EXAMINATION

    The other type of questioned documents like Alterations, erasures and obliterations often are certain very important factors in examining documents with the help of light sources, ultraviolet light, chemical solvents, etc. The module defines the evaluation of editing present in documents, nature of alteration, nature of erasures, types of erasures, nature of obliteration, overwriting, and insertions.

    MODULE 9 – PRINTING TECHNOLOGY

    This module will introduce the methods of pre-examination evaluation, examination procedures, examination of original and photocopied documents, and identification of printed documents.

    Printing machines have multiple identification marks of the printing procedures such as drum, high-speed mainframe line, drum and chain printers, typewriter technology printers like type ball, and daisy wheel. Dot matrix printers have multiple pins to strike the paper through a ribbon for transferring the printing ink. In the dot matrix printing process, if pins are damaged or not adequate in nature they leave multiple marks on the document. These marks play a vital role in identifying the particular printing machine.

    Due to the frequently produced print in inkjet printing technology, somewhat the unkempt marks become easy to view. However, the inkjet printed documents are easy to differentiate on the basis of their printing. The module will also introduce you to the monochrome and color laser/ led printers, photocopiers, analysis of photocopies, identifying individual photocopiers, facsimile machines, manipulated faxes, and fax machine defects.

    MODULE 10 – TYPOGRAPHY AND CHECK WRITER

    Typography is the art and technique of arranging letters and characters. This module will help the scholars in learning about anatomy of font which includes parts of type, type of classification, measuring font size and line spacing, factors affecting typographic line spacing, and many more. This module also covers the check writers, which is a device designed to print perforate, shred emboss, and other relevant information onto a cheque.

    MODULE 11 – SECURITY FEATURES IN DIFFERENT TYPE OF DOCUMENTS

    Due to some reasons like identity theft, frauds, money laundering, monetary gaining, etc., there are many authentic documents fraudulently altered and forged. This module includes all vital aspects of security features in various documents, such as - PAN card, TAN card, Voter ID card, Driving License, Aadhar Card, Passport, Stamp and e-stamp paper, Bankers Cheque, QR code and Bar code and identification features of Indian and other currency

    MODULE 12 – ANTI MONEY LAUNDERING DOCUMENTS VERIFICATION

    It will introduce the students to anti-money laundering documents such as- bank statements, Form-16, income Tax Return, voter ID card, salary slip, driving license, pan card, ration card, passport, telephone bill, electricity bill, etc.

    MODULE 13 – ART FORGERY

    In this module, the student will learn about different types of forgery that are generally committed in the art world. The forgery in the art world includes copying the style of painting of a famous artist, the false making of different sculptures and statutes, and vending un-authorized work of the artist to the dealers. There are numerous scientific techniques available that are frequently used by the experts for analysis of such forgeries and helps the experts in establishing the authenticity of questioned paintings. Few of them are like Dendrochronology, Carbon-dating, white lead dating, and craquelure, etc. helps in determining the approximate age of the painting and other advanced techniques including X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, inductive coupled plasma – mass spectroscopy, etc. are used to determine the elemental anomalies in the given painting. Now a day’s expert uses certain computational based tools like Digital Authentication and wavelet decomposition techniques which involve the digital analysis of the frequency of brush strokes, width, and texture to determine the authenticity of art work.

    MODULE 14 – TECHNIQUE AND INSTRUMENT USED IN DOCUMENT EXAMINATION

    This module deals with the various non-destructive and destructive technique and instrument used in document examination such as Magnifying Glass/Lens, Scales, Camera Microscope, Stereomicroscope, Comparison Microscope, Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), Visible Light, Ultra-Violet and Infra-Red Rays, Chromatography, Spectrometry. During document examination, the most preferred techniques are non-destructive techniques as it will not create any kind of alteration in the questioned document.

  • What is Questioned Document Examination?

    Questioned Document Examination is all about making the students understand the fundamentals, principles, and application of the science of writing in the criminal investigation. This subject would acquaint the students with the various crimes involving the documents, the types of forgery, their features, techniques of identifying them and establishing the authenticity of various computer-generated documents using different visualization, physical and chemical techniques.

  • How can I become a Questioned Document Examiner?

    Questioned Document covers the broader aspects and various documents that are in question for equity as per the Law. This course enables the learner to acquire comprehensibility of an examiner through thoroughly researched content under professional guidance. 

  • What are the responsibilities of a Questioned Document Examiner?

    Being a Questioned Document Examiner, one is challenged to figure out the individuality of a person through his self written or other documents as per defined characteristics. An examiner has to form an opinion with sagacity to bring justice to the innocent. 

  • What are the scope and the opportunistic aspects of the course?

    The Government has set up various laboratories focusing on examination of Questioned Documents. Various Government Forensic Science Laboratories are also open for such opportunities. One can also render his services as a Private Questioned Document Examiner. 

  • Where can I contact in case of any queries?

    You can write to us at education@sifs.in or call us at +91-1147074263 or WhatsApp us +91-7303913002 or +91-7303913003.

    Elizabethan Play Case Study

     

    In 1795 a Mr. Ireland brought forward what he claimed to be a new version of "Kynge Leare" which was allegedly written by William Shakespeare himself. In 1796, Edward Malone published a refutation of this document. Mr. Malone had discovered that the questioned manuscript contained pages with twenty different watermarks. He reasoned that an author of Shakespeare's caliber who was also famous and affluent at the time Lear was written, would have gone to a papermaker and secured as much paper of one type as was needed for his work. But someone who wanted to forge an Elizabethan play 200 years later would ferret out such scraps of old paper as he could - from the flyleaves and blank pages of old manuscripts. Indeed, in 1805 the forger wrote his confession and admitted that he had done exactly that. He had paid a bookseller to let him cut out blank pages from the older volumes in his shop.

     

    Oliver Will Case

     

    In the 1920's the Oliver Will case was tried in White Plains, New York. The question revolved around the date on which the will was written. A legal form that had the date and name and address of its printer at the top was used for the will, but a piece of the document which showed the date had been torn away. There were two possibilities for the date of the form - January 8, 1924, or October 8, 1924. The date of the alleged will was September 20, 1924, so the only form that could have been used was the one printed earlier in the year. Upon close examination, it was found that in tearing away the dated portion of the form, the tail of the comma in the address was still visible, and the position on the paper of that comma tail proved that the form could not have been the January 8th form. The questioned will was therefore written on a form that did not exist on the date it was allegedly prepared.

George Dwayne Dixon

5

It has been a great experience thus far, SIFS INDIA is well-equipped with all the tools needed for my advancement in the field of Questioned Document Examination.

Kigongo Melvins

5

This was a great experience to know more things and explore more knowledge about the handwriting and signature analysis which is helpful for me. Thank you so much SIFS INDIA for brushing up us to shine later in the future. 

Sonam Mishra

4

This course is so informative for me ,the best time utilized by joining this course. Learn so many new things from this and also did some practice which is more interesting. I'm glad that I become a part of this.

Ananshi Saini

5

I really enjoyed my course. It was all based on researched content which enhanced my knowledge. Faculties were really helpful.
Gonna join more course like this in future.

Jyotsna

4

Full of knowledge. Clearance of all the doubt . Best platform for forensic courses.

 

Instructors

Sheza Azeen

Sheza Azeen

Director Training

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