MODULE 1 – QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
In several cases, a document is existing that is evidently of a certain means, required to prove the authentic meaning by questioned document examiner. Forensic questioned document analysis will very often involve the study of document, questioned document analysis U/S 463 of IPC, standard exemplars, scientific examination of documents, nature and problem related to documents, the importance of photographic evidence, handling and preservation of questioned and standard exemplars.
MODULE 2 – PHOTOGRAPHY OF DOCUMENT
Photographs are considered to be the most relevant evidence in cases that deal with the examination of documents found on either usual surfaces or on unusual surfaces like writings or any other textual material found on walls, or on mirrors, etc. Hence this module includes the photographic techniques used for the examination of identification. Different photographic techniques including oblique light photography, transmitted light photography, ultraviolet photography, infrared photography, and photography using lasers are applied for photographing the writings found on conventional surfaces like on paper, books, boards, etc.
MODULE 3 – HANDWRITING
Handwriting is an autonomous and continuous feature of human beings. Handwriting is used as the identification of an individual as each and every individual has its unique handwriting characteristics. This module covers the basic characteristics feature of handwriting which signifies the individuality of a person. It also includes the various factors which affect the handwriting either naturally or intentionally.
MODULE 4 – HANDWRITING EXAMINATION
Examination and comparison of the handwriting are based on some abbreviations by its nature, alignment, arrangement, connections, initial stroke, pen lifts, pen pressure, punctuation, rhythm, shading, size, slope, terminal stroke, tremor, and the individual features. It is thoroughly examined during the examination of the writing variations. The typical problems involved in handwriting identification and disguised handwriting are also kept in account while conducting an examination.
MODULE 5 – IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNATURE AND FORGERIES
The students will learn all aspects of signatures, which will enhance their skills in examination and report writing. Introduction to signature identification, genuine signatures, accidental variations- receipt signatures, signatures influenced by alcohol and drugs and illness and old age, forged and distorted/ disguised signatures- traced forgeries, simulated forgeries, spurious signatures and spouse’s limitations, identification of the initials and illiterate’s marks, evaluating non-original signatures, and forgery by transplanting a genuine signature are the key-points summed up in this module.
MODULE 6 – PAPER AND INK ANALYSIS
The paper and ink analysis plays a very important role in the examination of the questioned documents. This module focusses on the examination of the paper and ink which is helpful in the estimation of the age of the document. Different types of inks are available which is used for the purpose of writing and are formed by the mixture of various chemicals.
MODULE 7 – WRITING/PRINTING INSTRUMENTS AND EXAMINATION OF DOCUMENTS PRODUCED
From painting walls to chiseling the walls with stone, evolution has occurred even in the instruments of writing. Modern form of writing instruments includes pen, pencil, chalk, crayons, etc. that have characteristic features of itself affecting the style of the writer. The approach for the examination of both handwritten (by forms of pen and pencil) and computer-generated documents like typewritten, printed, photocopied, fax or scanned, requires extensive knowledge of the origin and trends of the various instruments and machines that were introduced till the time. This module includes the various type of instruments used for the examination of document either printed or written.
MODULE 8 – OTHER TYPES OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT AND THEIR EXAMINATION
The other type of questioned documents like Alterations, erasures and obliterations often are certain very important factors in examining documents with the help of light sources, ultraviolet light, chemical solvents, etc. The module defines the evaluation of editing present in documents, nature of alteration, nature of erasures, types of erasures, nature of obliteration, overwriting, and insertions.
MODULE 9 – PRINTING TECHNOLOGY
This module will introduce the methods of pre-examination evaluation, examination procedures, examination of original and photocopied documents, and identification of printed documents.
Printing machines have multiple identification marks of the printing procedures such as drum, high-speed mainframe line, drum and chain printers, typewriter technology printers like type ball, and daisy wheel. Dot matrix printers have multiple pins to strike the paper through a ribbon for transferring the printing ink. In the dot matrix printing process, if pins are damaged or not adequate in nature they leave multiple marks on the document. These marks play a vital role in identifying the particular printing machine.
Due to the frequently produced print in inkjet printing technology, somewhat the unkempt marks become easy to view. However, the inkjet printed documents are easy to differentiate on the basis of their printing. The module will also introduce you to the monochrome and color laser/ led printers, photocopiers, analysis of photocopies, identifying individual photocopiers, facsimile machines, manipulated faxes, and fax machine defects.
MODULE 10 – TYPOGRAPHY AND CHECK WRITER
Typography is the art and technique of arranging letters and characters. This module will help the scholars in learning about anatomy of font which includes parts of type, type of classification, measuring font size and line spacing, factors affecting typographic line spacing, and many more. This module also covers the check writers, which is a device designed to print perforate, shred emboss, and other relevant information onto a cheque.
MODULE 11 – SECURITY FEATURES IN DIFFERENT TYPE OF DOCUMENTS
Due to some reasons like identity theft, frauds, money laundering, monetary gaining, etc., there are many authentic documents fraudulently altered and forged. This module includes all vital aspects of security features in various documents, such as - PAN card, TAN card, Voter ID card, Driving License, Aadhar Card, Passport, Stamp and e-stamp paper, Bankers Cheque, QR code and Bar code and identification features of Indian and other currency
MODULE 12 – ANTI MONEY LAUNDERING DOCUMENTS VERIFICATION
It will introduce the students to anti-money laundering documents such as- bank statements, Form-16, income Tax Return, voter ID card, salary slip, driving license, pan card, ration card, passport, telephone bill, electricity bill, etc.
MODULE 13 – ART FORGERY
In this module, the student will learn about different types of forgery that are generally committed in the art world. The forgery in the art world includes copying the style of painting of a famous artist, the false making of different sculptures and statutes, and vending un-authorized work of the artist to the dealers. There are numerous scientific techniques available that are frequently used by the experts for analysis of such forgeries and helps the experts in establishing the authenticity of questioned paintings. Few of them are like Dendrochronology, Carbon-dating, white lead dating, and craquelure, etc. helps in determining the approximate age of the painting and other advanced techniques including X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, inductive coupled plasma – mass spectroscopy, etc. are used to determine the elemental anomalies in the given painting. Now a day’s expert uses certain computational based tools like Digital Authentication and wavelet decomposition techniques which involve the digital analysis of the frequency of brush strokes, width, and texture to determine the authenticity of art work.
MODULE 14 – TECHNIQUE AND INSTRUMENT USED IN DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
This module deals with the various non-destructive and destructive technique and instrument used in document examination such as Magnifying Glass/Lens, Scales, Camera Microscope, Stereomicroscope, Comparison Microscope, Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), Visible Light, Ultra-Violet and Infra-Red Rays, Chromatography, Spectrometry. During document examination, the most preferred techniques are non-destructive techniques as it will not create any kind of alteration in the questioned document.